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2017考研初试各校艺术学真题汇总
2017考研初试各校艺术学真题汇总

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新东方在线 | 2016年12月25日 17:41
2017年考研初试西医真题解析
2017年考研初试西医真题解析

  2017考研已经结束,新东方在线全国研究生入学考试研究中心第一时间进行真题解析,方便各位考生及时了解真题相关动态。今天讲一下真题的问题。真题是这样的,因为刚刚考完两三个小时,老师只拿到了一部分回忆的真题。这部分回忆的真题题目比较支离破碎,老师把比较清晰的题目分享一下,看考了什么、怎么考的。咱们主要侧重于老师比较擅长的方面进行一个分析。 首先外科部分也是大头部分,主要考了几个考点: (1)包括骨折专有体征,一定要注意骨折专有体征,局部疼痛、局部红肿是一般体征。专有体征是异常活动、畸形、骨擦感。我们平时考试也是出这样的多选。 (2)另外是很容易掉在坑里的直肠癌手术方式选择,最后三小时也说了主要考点在手术方式,基本上考60%、70%都是考查手术方式。但是在考试中题目略微增加了一个难度,是距齿状线五公分要做联合。今年考试是距肛门、肛缘七公分。我们经常临床要摸到底几公分,位置决定手术方式,这是一个原则。一定注意齿状线距肛门还有1.5到2公分距离。所以考试前、精讲班都说过,这个七厘米相当于齿状线距离肿瘤5厘米。 (3)另外一个叫胃肠道间质瘤,我讲过,因为老师在北医上学的时候某个医院某个科室专门做胃肠道间质瘤,北医考试非常容易考。胃肠道间质瘤主要特点是什么呢?黏膜下的肿物,少数病人以消化道大出血为主要原因;CD34和CD117是阳性的;疾病治疗有特别的靶向治疗,伊马替尼靶向治疗。良恶不定。镜下看到的细胞分裂象大于50还是小于50;肿瘤直径大于5公分还是小于5公分;胃发生的更偏良性。 (4)还有一个北医特别容易考的延迟性脾破裂,有两年都考的这个。 胃肠道间质瘤主要特点是什么呢?黏膜下的肿物,少数病人以消化道大出血为主要原因;CD34和CD117是阳性的;疾病治疗有特别的靶向治疗,伊马替尼靶向治疗。良恶不定。镜下看到的细胞分裂象大于50还是小于50;肿瘤直径大于5公分还是小于5公分;胃发生的更偏良性。 (5)所有的骨肿瘤,骨的感染,这些基本上在骨骺生长部位,膝关节上下。 (6)另外同学们争议最多的,有一道进食枣以后出现腹痛,题目中大家都在提供信息,没有说呕吐,说了停止排气排便,这样的病人我第一感觉是前一段时间收治三个这样病人,胃石症,吃枣、吃柿子容易出现这样的胃石。刚开始在胃里,有的小于4公分的经幽门排到肠道,小于2.5公分的才可以排出去。这道题目不完整,病人吃了东西以后,尤其吃了枣以后,病人不排气不排便首先考虑肠梗阻,比较常见。最不容易通过的部位是回盲瓣。最严重的并发症是穿孔。现在症状像什么疾病,这个现在的症状像低位肠梗阻。 拿到真正的题目老师一定会给大家建议。这个题目我刚才所说的纯临床型题目。在咱们讲肠梗阻的时候讲过吃了枣、吃了柿子容易出现胃石症。没有提过。但是临床中,这个季节很多人吃这个,我记得我们主任给我们讲,以前生活条件比较差,好多村里老百姓冬天饿了,或者什么时候就吃个柿子充饥,尤其枣和柿子一块吃很容易出问题。这个是纯临床型题目,考你肠梗阻,但是这是一个真实病例。所以给大家的难度提升了。知识点是书上有的。这是以后要注意的一个地方。这类题目同学们都很纠结,说明它难。 (7)再往后考了破伤风,这都是比较常见的考点。 (8)另外考了普外腹腔间隔室综合症。 (9)另外考了嵌顿疝,什么疝最容易嵌顿,就是股疝。 (10)腹部损伤考了最经典的腹部损伤,肝脾破裂。脾破裂最容易考,然后就是肝破裂。冲刺班的时候就讲肝脾破裂,临床中70%、80%腹部损伤都是肝脾破裂。这个既有腹腔出血的表现又有腹膜刺激症。 (11)另外还有像肩周炎的治疗,粘连性肩关节囊炎。最特殊的治疗就是不要制动,主动每日进行锻炼,6到24个月自愈了。有一个三角巾悬吊是不可以选的。理疗、关节镜子手术都可以用。 这样的题目比较常规,是多选题。如果学习得不全面,很容易选错的,选不全。这个是失分的主要原因。 (12)其他的比较冷的考点考髋关节结核。说一下,讲结核的时候主要讲了脊椎结核多一些,髋关节结核在精讲班是讲的。所以这个相对来说稍微有一点冷。实际上说了不少题了,很多道题了。这些大概是外科部分同学们反应出来考了这么多个考点。 除了(个人看起来)髋关节结核相对比较冷一点之外,其他的像骨折体征,直肠癌手术方式、破伤风的治疗、腹腔间隔室综合症,应该是急性胰腺炎,最后三小时说了,每年押肝胆外科的时候都说这两个必须会,这个是肝胆外科最常见的两个问题了。再往下肝脾破裂。一个比较冷的是胃肠道间质瘤。题目出得比较好,有一定鉴别能力,毕竟是选拔性考试。但是总体来说命题还是比较规范的。没有出现特别偏怪难的问题。 还有一个是今年人文部分,简单说一下: (1)人文中第一个考了最后冲刺的时候一直说的医患关系本质是什么,虽然四个字,但是很关键,因为考职业医考了很多年,是信任的关系,契约的关系。把生命健康托付给你,叫先有信后有托,叫做信任的平等关系基础上叫做信托关系。 (2)孕产妇出现难产,患者家属拒绝签字这时候先保证什么?叫医疗干预权,保证患者生命健康在第一位。 (3)艾滋病病人和你交流,到底应该怎么去做。首先为患者保密,另外你有义务进行上报。所以与患者沟通、或者说知情同意以后再上报,是临床中正常的处理流程。临床中碰到传染病病人一般都是这样处理的。 所以总体来说人文沟通目前拿到的这几道题目相对比较常规。没有出现一个特别特别难的情况。 此外病理就不给大家说了。病理应该相对来说难度比较正常的。没有出现特别特别难的题,没见过、没讲过。目前没有听到这样的问题。 从这个老师目前拿到的这部分真题来看,老师给大家简单说一下命题的方式、命题的难度。后面我们将会在新东方在线官网上第一时间把真题详细版给大家提供。另外我会在微博上进行讨论。老师微博是西医综合徐琦,希望大家关注。真题分析完以后,对于2018届同学需要注意复习的问题,是这样的:考试改革今年第一年,也算不小的改革了,从初试到复试都进行了改革。以后应该怎么复习呢? 第一是以课本作为主要的复习载体,知识需要理解。尤其今年内外科提高了,包括医学人文精神以理解为基础的题目的比例。不理解这个疾病,一系列题,尤其病例题增加的情况下,没有解题思路选不出来的,死记硬背题做不出来分,所以要理解。理解基础上尽量把书上的内容记得越多越好。有同学说老师你说得简单,多选题就是典型代表,谁记得越清楚、越全面拿到分数概率越高。单选题靠记忆,多选题考察记忆全面性,一定要学懂。学懂基础上再强化记忆。千万不要死记硬背。这样的情况下目前考试形式下行不通的。 第二是是配合课程,因为课程中老师会给大家解释,包括老师刚才说的同学们讨论最多的肠梗阻的题。我会告诉你一些比较新的信息。吃柿子、吃枣,具体多大厘米可能掉下去,在哪里卡住,临床中有这样的说法。书上有时候不会提。对于老师来说老师会告诉你这个病人是这样的问题,我们见到过这样的事。 虽然看起来很随便,但是提供了真正的临床感觉。这样可能会帮助你。 这个可以适当配合课程进行学习。我相信同学们在听课过程当中会受益。 第三是早动手,现在复习的量越来越大了。包括增加了一门医学人文精神,曾经的小三科,生理、生化、病理考试比例压缩了12%,但是大纲内容增加了。大纲中基本没有删东西,还新增了。复习的东西多了但是考试分数少了,这样难度还是增加了。内容越来越多,怎么去应对呢?只能早点复习,尽量全面复习吧。早点动手比晚点强,大家都懂的,尤其笨鸟要先飞。 第四是一定要客观的对待一些信息,那就是对于制订复习计划,制订一些复习策略,一定要根据自己学习特点制订。千万不要人云亦云,被水军左右。根据自己的学习的特点,客观的参考一些真正的经验帖,而不是水帖。去制订自己的复习计划。不要在刚开始制订学习计划、选用复习资料的时候犯了原则性错误。这样越走越偏,几个月以后根本掰不过来。要客观看待一些文章、经验。这个给大家再嘱咐一下。[详情]

新东方在线 | 2016年12月25日 17:33
2017年考研初试心理学专业真题
2017年考研初试心理学专业真题

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万学海文 | 2016年12月25日 17:29
2017年考研初试历史学基础考试真题
2017年考研初试历史学基础考试真题

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万学海文 | 2016年12月25日 17:19
2017考研初试教育学专业真题
2017考研初试教育学专业真题

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万学海文 | 2016年12月25日 17:10
法律硕士(非法学)专业基础课真题及答案
法律硕士(非法学)专业基础课真题及答案

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新东方在线 | 2016年12月25日 16:52
2017考研初试数学三真题答案解析
2017考研初试数学三真题答案解析

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跨考教育 | 2016年12月25日 16:26
2017年考研初试数学二答案解析
2017年考研初试数学二答案解析

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文都教育 | 2016年12月25日 16:14
2017年考研初试数学真题及参考答案汇总
2017年考研初试数学真题及参考答案汇总

  新浪教育讯 2017年考研初试数学试题及参考答案汇总如下: 数学一:真题 参考答案 数学二:真题 参考答案 数学三:真题 参考答案[详情]

新浪教育 | 2016年12月25日 15:02
2017年考研初试英语一二真题及参考答案汇总
2017年考研初试英语一二真题及参考答案汇总

     新浪教育讯 2017年考研初试英语试题及参考答案汇总如下:    2017考研英语一真题及参考答案:点击查看    2017考研英语二真题及参考答案:点击查看[详情]

新浪教育 | 2016年12月25日 14:58
2017考研初试各校艺术学真题汇总
2017考研初试各校艺术学真题汇总

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2017年考研初试西医真题解析
2017年考研初试西医真题解析

  2017考研已经结束,新东方在线全国研究生入学考试研究中心第一时间进行真题解析,方便各位考生及时了解真题相关动态。今天讲一下真题的问题。真题是这样的,因为刚刚考完两三个小时,老师只拿到了一部分回忆的真题。这部分回忆的真题题目比较支离破碎,老师把比较清晰的题目分享一下,看考了什么、怎么考的。咱们主要侧重于老师比较擅长的方面进行一个分析。 首先外科部分也是大头部分,主要考了几个考点: (1)包括骨折专有体征,一定要注意骨折专有体征,局部疼痛、局部红肿是一般体征。专有体征是异常活动、畸形、骨擦感。我们平时考试也是出这样的多选。 (2)另外是很容易掉在坑里的直肠癌手术方式选择,最后三小时也说了主要考点在手术方式,基本上考60%、70%都是考查手术方式。但是在考试中题目略微增加了一个难度,是距齿状线五公分要做联合。今年考试是距肛门、肛缘七公分。我们经常临床要摸到底几公分,位置决定手术方式,这是一个原则。一定注意齿状线距肛门还有1.5到2公分距离。所以考试前、精讲班都说过,这个七厘米相当于齿状线距离肿瘤5厘米。 (3)另外一个叫胃肠道间质瘤,我讲过,因为老师在北医上学的时候某个医院某个科室专门做胃肠道间质瘤,北医考试非常容易考。胃肠道间质瘤主要特点是什么呢?黏膜下的肿物,少数病人以消化道大出血为主要原因;CD34和CD117是阳性的;疾病治疗有特别的靶向治疗,伊马替尼靶向治疗。良恶不定。镜下看到的细胞分裂象大于50还是小于50;肿瘤直径大于5公分还是小于5公分;胃发生的更偏良性。 (4)还有一个北医特别容易考的延迟性脾破裂,有两年都考的这个。 胃肠道间质瘤主要特点是什么呢?黏膜下的肿物,少数病人以消化道大出血为主要原因;CD34和CD117是阳性的;疾病治疗有特别的靶向治疗,伊马替尼靶向治疗。良恶不定。镜下看到的细胞分裂象大于50还是小于50;肿瘤直径大于5公分还是小于5公分;胃发生的更偏良性。 (5)所有的骨肿瘤,骨的感染,这些基本上在骨骺生长部位,膝关节上下。 (6)另外同学们争议最多的,有一道进食枣以后出现腹痛,题目中大家都在提供信息,没有说呕吐,说了停止排气排便,这样的病人我第一感觉是前一段时间收治三个这样病人,胃石症,吃枣、吃柿子容易出现这样的胃石。刚开始在胃里,有的小于4公分的经幽门排到肠道,小于2.5公分的才可以排出去。这道题目不完整,病人吃了东西以后,尤其吃了枣以后,病人不排气不排便首先考虑肠梗阻,比较常见。最不容易通过的部位是回盲瓣。最严重的并发症是穿孔。现在症状像什么疾病,这个现在的症状像低位肠梗阻。 拿到真正的题目老师一定会给大家建议。这个题目我刚才所说的纯临床型题目。在咱们讲肠梗阻的时候讲过吃了枣、吃了柿子容易出现胃石症。没有提过。但是临床中,这个季节很多人吃这个,我记得我们主任给我们讲,以前生活条件比较差,好多村里老百姓冬天饿了,或者什么时候就吃个柿子充饥,尤其枣和柿子一块吃很容易出问题。这个是纯临床型题目,考你肠梗阻,但是这是一个真实病例。所以给大家的难度提升了。知识点是书上有的。这是以后要注意的一个地方。这类题目同学们都很纠结,说明它难。 (7)再往后考了破伤风,这都是比较常见的考点。 (8)另外考了普外腹腔间隔室综合症。 (9)另外考了嵌顿疝,什么疝最容易嵌顿,就是股疝。 (10)腹部损伤考了最经典的腹部损伤,肝脾破裂。脾破裂最容易考,然后就是肝破裂。冲刺班的时候就讲肝脾破裂,临床中70%、80%腹部损伤都是肝脾破裂。这个既有腹腔出血的表现又有腹膜刺激症。 (11)另外还有像肩周炎的治疗,粘连性肩关节囊炎。最特殊的治疗就是不要制动,主动每日进行锻炼,6到24个月自愈了。有一个三角巾悬吊是不可以选的。理疗、关节镜子手术都可以用。 这样的题目比较常规,是多选题。如果学习得不全面,很容易选错的,选不全。这个是失分的主要原因。 (12)其他的比较冷的考点考髋关节结核。说一下,讲结核的时候主要讲了脊椎结核多一些,髋关节结核在精讲班是讲的。所以这个相对来说稍微有一点冷。实际上说了不少题了,很多道题了。这些大概是外科部分同学们反应出来考了这么多个考点。 除了(个人看起来)髋关节结核相对比较冷一点之外,其他的像骨折体征,直肠癌手术方式、破伤风的治疗、腹腔间隔室综合症,应该是急性胰腺炎,最后三小时说了,每年押肝胆外科的时候都说这两个必须会,这个是肝胆外科最常见的两个问题了。再往下肝脾破裂。一个比较冷的是胃肠道间质瘤。题目出得比较好,有一定鉴别能力,毕竟是选拔性考试。但是总体来说命题还是比较规范的。没有出现特别偏怪难的问题。 还有一个是今年人文部分,简单说一下: (1)人文中第一个考了最后冲刺的时候一直说的医患关系本质是什么,虽然四个字,但是很关键,因为考职业医考了很多年,是信任的关系,契约的关系。把生命健康托付给你,叫先有信后有托,叫做信任的平等关系基础上叫做信托关系。 (2)孕产妇出现难产,患者家属拒绝签字这时候先保证什么?叫医疗干预权,保证患者生命健康在第一位。 (3)艾滋病病人和你交流,到底应该怎么去做。首先为患者保密,另外你有义务进行上报。所以与患者沟通、或者说知情同意以后再上报,是临床中正常的处理流程。临床中碰到传染病病人一般都是这样处理的。 所以总体来说人文沟通目前拿到的这几道题目相对比较常规。没有出现一个特别特别难的情况。 此外病理就不给大家说了。病理应该相对来说难度比较正常的。没有出现特别特别难的题,没见过、没讲过。目前没有听到这样的问题。 从这个老师目前拿到的这部分真题来看,老师给大家简单说一下命题的方式、命题的难度。后面我们将会在新东方在线官网上第一时间把真题详细版给大家提供。另外我会在微博上进行讨论。老师微博是西医综合徐琦,希望大家关注。真题分析完以后,对于2018届同学需要注意复习的问题,是这样的:考试改革今年第一年,也算不小的改革了,从初试到复试都进行了改革。以后应该怎么复习呢? 第一是以课本作为主要的复习载体,知识需要理解。尤其今年内外科提高了,包括医学人文精神以理解为基础的题目的比例。不理解这个疾病,一系列题,尤其病例题增加的情况下,没有解题思路选不出来的,死记硬背题做不出来分,所以要理解。理解基础上尽量把书上的内容记得越多越好。有同学说老师你说得简单,多选题就是典型代表,谁记得越清楚、越全面拿到分数概率越高。单选题靠记忆,多选题考察记忆全面性,一定要学懂。学懂基础上再强化记忆。千万不要死记硬背。这样的情况下目前考试形式下行不通的。 第二是是配合课程,因为课程中老师会给大家解释,包括老师刚才说的同学们讨论最多的肠梗阻的题。我会告诉你一些比较新的信息。吃柿子、吃枣,具体多大厘米可能掉下去,在哪里卡住,临床中有这样的说法。书上有时候不会提。对于老师来说老师会告诉你这个病人是这样的问题,我们见到过这样的事。 虽然看起来很随便,但是提供了真正的临床感觉。这样可能会帮助你。 这个可以适当配合课程进行学习。我相信同学们在听课过程当中会受益。 第三是早动手,现在复习的量越来越大了。包括增加了一门医学人文精神,曾经的小三科,生理、生化、病理考试比例压缩了12%,但是大纲内容增加了。大纲中基本没有删东西,还新增了。复习的东西多了但是考试分数少了,这样难度还是增加了。内容越来越多,怎么去应对呢?只能早点复习,尽量全面复习吧。早点动手比晚点强,大家都懂的,尤其笨鸟要先飞。 第四是一定要客观的对待一些信息,那就是对于制订复习计划,制订一些复习策略,一定要根据自己学习特点制订。千万不要人云亦云,被水军左右。根据自己的学习的特点,客观的参考一些真正的经验帖,而不是水帖。去制订自己的复习计划。不要在刚开始制订学习计划、选用复习资料的时候犯了原则性错误。这样越走越偏,几个月以后根本掰不过来。要客观看待一些文章、经验。这个给大家再嘱咐一下。[详情]

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2017年考研初试心理学专业真题

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2017考研初试教育学专业真题

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2017年考研初试数学真题及参考答案汇总

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2017年考研初试英语一二真题及参考答案汇总

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2017年考研英语二真题及参考答案
2017年考研英语二真题及参考答案

  2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二) Section I  Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) People have speculated for centuries about a future without work .Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again  1  that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by  2  . A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland. A different and not mutually exclusive  3  holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one   4   by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives   5  , people will simply become lazy and depressed.   6 , today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for   7  Americans. Also, some research suggests that the   8   for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting  9   poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many   10  the agonizing dullness of a jobless future. But it doesn’t   11  follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the   12  of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the   13  of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could   14  strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the   15  of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway. These days, because leisure time is relatively   16  for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional   17  of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel   18  ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself   19  a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for   20  matters. 1.[A] boasting          [B] denying          [C] warning          [D] ensuring 【答案】[C] warning 2.[A] inequality       [B] instability      [C] unreliability      [D] uncertainty 【答案】[A] inequality 3.[A] policy          [B]guideline       [C] resolution        [D] prediction 【答案】[D] prediction 4.[A] characterized    [B]divided           [C] balanced         [D]measured 【答案】[A] characterized 5.[A] wisdom           [B] meaning         [C] glory           [D] freedom 【答案】[B] meaning 6.[A] Instead              [B] Indeed           [C] Thus            [D] Nevertheless 【答案】[B] Indeed 7.[A] rich                [B] urban            [C]working          [D] educated 【答案】[C] working 8.[A] explanation           [B] requirement          [C] compensation     [D] substitute 【答案】[A] explanation 9.[A] under              [B] beyond            [C] alongside         [D] among 【答案】[D] among 10.[A] leave behind        [B] make up           [C] worry about        [D] set aside 【答案】[C] worry about 11.[A] statistically           [B] occasionally         [C] necessarily       [D] economically 【答案】[C] necessarily 12.[A] chances           [B] downsides            [C] benefits       [D] principles 【答案】[B] downsides 13.[A] absence             [B] height              [C] face           [D] course 【答案】[A] absence 14.[A] disturb              [B] restore               [C] exclude          [D] yield 【答案】[D] yield 15.[A] model               [B] practice            [C] virtue         [D] hardship 【答案】[C] virtue 16.[A] tricky             [B] lengthy            [C] mysterious        [D] scarce 【答案】[D] scarce 17.[A] demands          [B] standards            [C] qualities          [D] threats 【答案】[A] demands 18.[A] ignored           [B] tired               [C] confused       [D] starved 【答案】[B] tired    19.[A] off               [B] against               [C] behind        [D] into 【答案】[D] into 20.[A] technological       [B] professional          [C] educational       [D] interpersonal 【答案】[B] professional Section II  Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour. Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run—up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers. Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers. Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse. 21. According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has    . [A] gained great popularity [B] created many jobs [C] strengthened community ties [D] become an official festival 【答案】[A] gained great popularity 22. The author believes that London’s Olympic“legacy” has failed to     . [A] boost population growth [B] promote sport participation [C] improve the city’s image [D] increase sport hours in schools 【答案】[B] promote sport participation 23. Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it     . [A] aims at discovering talents [B] focuses on mass competition [C] does not emphasize elitism [D] does not attract first-timers 【答案】[C] does not emphasize elitism 24. With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should    . [A] organize “grassroots” sports events [B] supervise local sports associations [C] increase funds for sports clubs [D] invest in public sports facilities 【答案】[D] invest in public sports facilities 25. The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is    . [A] tolerant [B] critical [C] uncertain [D] sympathetic 【答案】[B] critical Text 2 With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine. ” Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention. Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device—it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. “Parents don’t have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky. On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time. 26.  According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______. [A] simplify routine matters [B] absorb user attention [C] better interpersonal relations [D] increase work efficiency 【答案】[B] absorb user attention 27.    Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices ______. [A] takes away babies’ appetite [B] distracts children’s attention [C] slows down babies’ verbal development [D] reduces mother-child communication 【答案】[D] reduces mother-child communication 28.  Radesky’s cites the “still face experiment” to show that _______. [A] it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions [B] verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange [C] children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood [D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs 【答案】[D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs 29.    The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______. [A] protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies [B] teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year [C] ensure constant interaction with their children [D] remain concerned about kid’s use of screens 【答案】[C] ensure constant interaction with their children 30.    According to Tronick, kid’s use of screens may_______. [A] give their parents some free time [B] make their parents more creative [C] help them with their homework [D] help them become more attentive 【答案】[A] give their parents some free time Text 3 Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic. But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There’s always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits—in fact, it probably enhances it. Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders. If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on. 31. One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that        . [A] they think it academically misleading [B] they have a lot of fun to expect in college [C] it feels strange to do differently from others [D] it seems worthless to take off-campus courses 【答案】[C] it feels strange to do differently from others 32. Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps        . [A] keep students from being unrealistic [B] lower risks in choosing careers [C] ease freshmen’s financial burdens [D] relieve freshmen of pressures 【答案】[D] relieve freshmen of pressures 33. The word “acclimation” (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to        . [A] adaptation [B] application [C] motivation [D] competition 【答案】[A] adaptation 34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them        . [A] avoid academic failures [B] establish long-term goals [C] switch to another college [D] decide on the right major 【答案】[D] decide on the right major 35. The most suitable title for this text would be        . [A] In Favor of the Gap Year [B] The ABCs of the Gap Year [C] The Gap Year Comes Back [D] The Gap Year: A Dilemma 【答案】[A] In Favor of the Gap Year Text 4 Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management. In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work—such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep—that affect the lives of all Americans. Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire? “It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says.” We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?” Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say. For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change—how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires. While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation. “The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.” At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says. “We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.” 36. More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they       . [A] exhausted unprecedented management efforts [B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget [C] severely damaged the ecology of western states [D] caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure 【答案】[B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget 37. Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to       . [A] raise more funds for fire-prone areas [B] avoid the redirection of federal money [C] find wildfire-free parts of the landscape [D] guarantee safer spending of public funds 【答案】[D] guarantee safer spending of public funds 38. While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that       . [A] public debates have not settled yet [B] fire-fighting conditions are improving [C] other factors should not be overlooked [D] a shift in the view of fire has taken place 【答案】[C] other factors should not be overlooked 39. The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to       . [A] discover the fundamental makeup of nature [B] explore the mechanism of the human systems [C] maximize the role of landscape in human life [D] understand the interrelations of man and nature 【答案】[D] understand the interrelations of man and nature 40. Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should       . [A] do away with [B] come to terms with [C] pay a price for [D] keep away from 【答案】[B] come to terms with Part B Directions: Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. “We don’t make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line. Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing. But there is also a different way to look at the data. Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay. For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers—and upward pressure on wages. “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming [into the workforce], but they’ve been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture. At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years. At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he’s trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It’s his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. “I love working with tools. I love creating.” he says. But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials “remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,” says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan. These concerns aren’t misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels. “The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. “There’re enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill. It’s that gap in between, and that’s where the problem is. ” Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. “Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives,” she says. [A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools. 41. Jay Deuwell    [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill. 42. Jason Stenquist    [C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore. 43. Birgit Klohs    [D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers. 44. Rob Spohr    [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition. 45.Julie Parks    [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing. [G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents. 【答案】 41 [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.        42 [A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.             43 [G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents. 44 [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill 45 [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing Section III  Translation 46.Directions: Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points) My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realized I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be honest, I said it , because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream—I knew that no one could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I noticed the course “Fashion Media & Promotion.”【参考译文】 我一直梦想着能找到一个结合时尚与出版的工作。中学毕业前两年,我学习了缝纫设计课程,认为自己继而能够学习时尚设计。然而,期间,发现自己在该领域不够优秀,不足以在未来与其他富有创造力的人竞争。因此,得出结论:这条道路不适合我。在申请大学之前,我告诉大家自己会选择新闻专业,因为写作一直都是我最喜欢的事情之一。但是,说实话,当时这样说,是因为我认为时尚于我而言就是个梦想。我知道完全没有人相信我会进入时尚这一行。因此,我决定去寻找一些课程,既与时尚相关、又涉及写作。就在这时,我注意到了《时尚媒体与营销》这门课程。 Section  IV  Writing Part A 47. Directions: Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to 1) accept the invitation, and 2) introduce the key points of your presentation You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET. Don’t use your own name, use “LiMing” instead. Don’t write your address. (10 points) 47、 【参考范文】 Dear Professor Williams, I felt much honored when I received your invitation to give a presentation about Chinese culture to the international students of your college. I would much like to do this job. So I am writing to tell you something about the presentation to be given. The focus of my presentation will be Chinese traditional festivals, such as the Spring Festival and the Mid-autumn Day. In the speech, I will introduce the origin and conventions of these festivals. For example, the Mid-Autumn Day, falling on the 15th of August in the Chinese lunar calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday for family members and loved ones to gather together. In addition to enjoying the glorious full moon on this day, Chinese people will also eat festival-moon cakes, recite ancient Chinese poems as well as guess lantern riddles. I believe these knowledge will help the foreign students obtain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture. I am really looking forward to sharing these with all of the international students. Yours sincerely, Li Ming Part B 48. Directions: You should write about 150 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points) 48、 【参考范文】 Reflected in the chart given above are the respective changes in the numbers of museums and their visitors in China from the year 2013 to 2015. It can be clearly seen that the number of museums was on a continuous rise from 6378 to 7811 in the two years, up more than 22%, and so did that of the visitors, with an increase of nearly 13% from 4165 to 4692. What might account for the notable growths? Reasons are many, but the most important one, as far as I am concerned, is that with the boom of Chinese economy in recent years, our government has been placing an increasingly high value on the inheritance of traditional culture, which connects modern people with the historical past, allowing them to acquire a cultural and historical identity. What’s more, more attention is paid to tour Chinese traditional culture since the Chinese have improved living standards. With the development of China, the increasing trend is bound to continue for some time in the future. From my perspective, it is a positive trend and should be encouraged, for it is not only beneficial for the preservation and rejuvenation of our ancestral heritages but also conducive to the cultural diversity of the world.[详情]

2017年考研英语一真题及参考答案
2017年考研英语一真题及参考答案

  Section I  Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding “yes!”  1  helping you feel close and   2  to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a  3  of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you  4  getting sick this winter. In a recent study   5   over 400 health adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs  6  the participants’ susceptibility to developing the common cold after being  7  to the virus .People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come    8   with a cold ,and the researchers  9  that the stress-reducing effects of hugging  10   about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.  11  among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe   12  . “Hugging protects people who are under stress from the   13  risk for colds that’s usually  14  with stress,” notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie. Hugging “is a marker of intimacy and helps   15  the feeling that others are there to help   16  difficulty.” Some experts   17   the stress-reducing , health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called “the bonding hormone”   18   it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mother and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain , and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it   19   in the brain, where it   20  mood, behavior and physiology. 1.[A]  Unlike         [B]  Besides          [C]  Despite         [D]  Throughout 【答案】[B]  Besides 2.[A]  connected      [B]  restricted          [C]  equal          [D]  inferior 【答案】[A]  connected 3.[A]  choice         [B]  view               [C]  lesson          [D]  host 【答案】[D]  host 4.[A]     recall        [B]  forget           [C]  avoid         [D]  keep 【答案】[C]  avoid 5.[A]  collecting     [B]  involving        [C]  guiding     [D]  affecting 【答案】[B]  involving 6.[A]  of             [B]  in                 [C]  at            [D]  on 【答案】[D]  on 7.[A]  devoted        [B]  exposed         [C]  lost         [D]  attracted 【答案】[B]  exposed 8.[A]  across          [B]  along              [C]  down        [D]  out 【答案】[C]  down 9.[A]  calculated      [B]  denied            [C]  doubted     [D]  imagined 【答案】[A]  calculated 10.[A]  served         [B]  required           [C]  restored     [D]  explained 【答案】[D]  explained 11.[A]  Even           [B]  Still                [C]  Rather         [D]  Thus 【答案】[A]  Even 12.[A]  defeats         [B]  symptoms        [C]   tests         [D]  errors 【答案】[B]  symptoms 13.[A]  minimized      [B]  highlighted         [C]  controlled      [D]  increased 【答案】[D]  increased 14.[A]  equipped       [B] associated            [C] presented       [D] compared 【答案】[B]  associated 15.[A]  assess        [B] moderate            [C] generate          [D] record 【答案】[C] generate 16.[A]  in the face of  [B] in the form of        [C] in the way of     [D] in the name of 【答案】[A]  in the face of 17.[A]  transfer       [B] commit            [C] attribute          [D] return 【答案】[C] attribute 18.[A]  because        [B] unless            [C] though        [D] until 【答案】[A]  because 19.[A]  emerges       [B] vanishes           [C] remains        [D] decreases 【答案】[C] remains 20.[A]  experiences   [B] combines          [C] justifies       [D]influences 【答案】[D]influences Section II  Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 First two hours , now three hours—this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight , at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines. Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804,which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea ,provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans’ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating. Last year, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons---both fake and real—past airport security nearly every time they tried .Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving Chicago’s O’Hare International .It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become—but the lines are obvious. Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel , so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this. There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited   screening lanes. This allows the TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck. It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways. The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work. 21. the crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to [A] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide. [B] highlight the necessity of upgrading major US airports. [C] explain Americans’ tolerance of current security checks. [D] emphasis the importance of privacy protection. 【答案】[C] explain Americans’ tolerance of current security checks. 22. which of the following contributions to long waits at major airport? [A] New restrictions on carry-on bags. [B] The declining efficiency of the TSA. [C] An increase in the number of travelers. [D] Frequent unexpected secret checks. 【答案】[C] An increase in the number of travelers. 23.The word “expedited” (Line 4, Para.5) is closest in meaning to [A] faster. [B] quieter. [C] wider. [D] cheaper. 【答案】[A] faster. 24. One problem with the PreCheck program is [A] A dramatic reduction of its scale. [B] Its wrongly-directed implementation. [C] The government’s reluctance to back it. [D] An unreasonable price for enrollment. 【答案】[D] An unreasonable price for enrollment. 25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Less Screening for More Safety [B] PreCheck-a Belated Solution [C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines [D] Underused PreCheck Lanes 【答案】[B] PreCheck-a Belated Solution Text 2 “The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos. At issue is the TMT’s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko , that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea’s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity. Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environments have long viewed their presence as disrespect for sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation. Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea’s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the island’s inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today. Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii’s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes. The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars. 26.     Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates [A] its conservative view on the historical role of astronomy. [B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society. [C] the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times. [D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time. 【答案】[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society. 27.     Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to [A] its geographical features [B] its protective surroundings. [C] its religious implications. [D] its existing infrastructure. 【答案】[A] its geographical features 28.    The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because [A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life. [B] it reminds them of a humiliating history. [C] their culture will lose a chance of revival. [D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea. 【答案】[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history. 29.    It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy [A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians. [B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world. [C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture. [D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility. 【答案】[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture. 30.    The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of [A] severe criticism. [B] passive acceptance. [C] slight hesitancy. [D] full approval. 【答案】[D] full approval. Text 3 Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to. The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects? A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.   While all of these countries face their own challenges , there are a number of consistent themes . Yes , there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash , but in key indicators in areas such as health and education , major economies have continued to decline . Yet this isn’t the case with all countries . Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society , income equality and the environment. This is a lesson that rich countries can learn : When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different . So, what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations , as a measure , it is no longer enough . It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being. The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth . But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress . 31.Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he [A]praised the UK for its GDP. [B]identified GDP with happiness . [C]misinterpreted the role of GDP . [D]had a low opinion of GDP . 【答案】[D] had a low opinion of GDP 32.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that [A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern . [B]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK . [C]the UK will contribute less to the world economy . [D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP . 【答案】[B]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK . 33.Which of the following is true about the recent annual study ? [A]It is sponsored by 163 countries . [B]It excludes GDP as an indicator. [C]Its criteria are questionable . [D]Its results are enlightening . 【答案】[D]Its results are enlightening . 34.In the last two paragraphs , the author suggests that [A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom . [B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline . [C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP . [D]it requires caution to handle economic issues . 【答案】[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP . 35.Which of the following is the best title for the text ? [A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being , a UK Lesson       [B]GDP Figures, a Window on Global Economic Health         [C]Rebort F.Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP           [D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being 【答案】[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being , a UK Lesson Text 4 In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government. The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trial failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties. Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found. The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act”. The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution for bribery.” The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court,” assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.” But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth. Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society—that all are equal in treatment by government—is undermined. Good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual. The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism. 36. The undermined sentence (Para.1) most probably shows that the court [A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties. [B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell. [C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct. [D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.     【答案】[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct. 37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves [A] leaking secrets intentionally. [B] sizable gains in the form of gifts. [C] concrete returns for gift-givers. [D] breaking contracts officially. 【答案】[C] concrete returns for gift-givers. 38. The court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials are [A] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents. [B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues. [C] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters. [D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism. 【答案】[A] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents. 39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to [A] awaken the conscience of officials. [B] guarantee fair play in official access. [C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying. [D] inspire hopes in average people. 【答案】[B] guarantee fair play in official access. 40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is [A] sarcastic. [B] tolerant. [C] skeptical. [D] supportive 【答案】[D] supportive Part B Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) [A]The first published sketch, “A Dinner at Poplar Walk” brought tears to Dickens’s eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name “Boz” in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation. [B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens’s fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure. [C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour’s pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837. [D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society. [E]Soon after his father’s release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter’s eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines. [F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England’s southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office –a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken’s mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken’s birth, his mother’s father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family’s increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren’s Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as “the young gentleman.” His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father’s imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken’s greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction. [G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan’s progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens’ as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters. D → 41.    → 42.    → 43.    → 44.    →   B →45.        【答案】 41.  [F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth 42.  [E] Soon after his father’s release from prison 43.  [A]The first published sketch 44.  [C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared 45.  [G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades. (46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future. Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities. David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that,(48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages. If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish ,Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads. (49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage. The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant:(50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and very different operating environment. That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it. 【答案】 (46) 但是即使当下英语使用者的人群还在进一步扩大,有迹象表明:在可预见的未来,英语可能会逐渐失去其全球主导地位。 (47) 因此,对于那些认为英语的国际地位无懈可击、甚至觉得他们的年青后辈们不需要学习其他语言的人而言,他的分析可能会给他们的骄傲自大画上一个句号。 (48) 众多国家正在将英语引进小学课程,但是,毫不夸张地说,英国学童和学生似乎没有受到更多的鼓励去学会流利地使用其他语言。 (49) 大卫·葛拉尔多所发现的变化给教授他国人士英语的英国机构以及更广阔的教育市场带来了显而易见的巨大挑战。 (50)这给所有致力于推广英语学习和使用的机构提供了一个制定规划的依据,让我们能够应对未来完全不同的操作环境里出现的各种可能性。 Section  III  Writing Part A 51. Directions: You are to write an email to James Cook , a newly-arrived Australian professor , recommending some tourist attractions in your city . Please give reasons for your recommendation . You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET . Do not sign your own name at the end of the email . Use “Li Ming” instead. Do not write the address . (10 points) 【参考范文】 Dear James Cook,   Welcome to China! I’m writing this email to recommend some scenic spots in Beijing to you so that you can have a wonderful time here. First of all, you could have a visit to the Summer Palace and Forbidden City, which are renowned for its old buildings and diverse cultures. After that, it is advisable to go to Wang Fujing, where you can have a taste of some delicious local food while enjoying the traditional culture. Finally, you can go to the National Museum, in which some traditional art exhibitions are being held. What do you think of my plans? I sincerely hope that you could enjoy yourselves in Beijing and it will be my pleasure to be your guide. Yours sincerely, Li Ming Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay , you should 1)describe the pictures briefly, 2)interpret the meaning , and 3)give your comments. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.( 20 points ) 【参考范文】 Portrayed in the two cartoons is thought-provoking: In the left one, a young man, comfortably lounging on the chair, is looking at his huge bookshelf full of books contentedly, while the other, in the right drawing, is determined to finish reading 20 books in a year.   By this scenario, the cartoonist is trying to awaken us to the importance of reading and sticking to our goals. It is universally held that with the advance of modern society, only those equipped with updated knowledge which requires constant reading are most likely to reach the summit of the success. Conversely, without persistent learning and taking actions, our objectives are bound to be a fantasy. Indeed, people fail always because they stop trying, not because they encounter invincible difficulties. From what has been mentioned above, we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that only those who keep learning and cherish the spirit of persistence have opportunities to succeed. Therefore, such essence is an important virtue worthy of being fostered. If you understand and adhere to this principle in your study and work, you will definitely benefit greatly.[详情]

2017年考研初试数学三真题
2017年考研初试数学三真题

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2017年考研初试数学二真题
2017年考研初试数学二真题

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2017考研数学一试题参考答案
2017考研数学一试题参考答案

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2017年考研初试数学一真题
2017年考研初试数学一真题

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2017管理类联考数学真题三大特点
2017管理类联考数学真题三大特点

  2017考研管综考试结束,新东方在线全国研究生入学考试研究中心第一时间对管综数学考试真题进行了解析。现在整体说一下2017管理类联考数学真题特点: 综观2017年真题卷,有以下三个特点: (一)数学的难度比2016年略大一些,与2015年基本持平,2015年的数学真题的难主要体现在计算量大,而 2017年的难主要体现为逻辑类的题目,考你这个条件要不要,需要一些数学思维加上一些分析推理才能得出。 (二)延续命题组特点,数学喜欢出“能确定”这种表述,这种题今年能确定出了五个题,我是全国第一个讲,大家要注意“能确定”的出题方式。 (三)有一个明显的特点强调分析推理。强调数学中的逻辑推理,控制计算量。命题专家是这样认为:计算量大怕MBA同学吃不消。强调一些数学题对推理要求越来越高,并不是简单计算可以得出,需要综合推理、分析的能力,这对2018年的同学也有启发。 初试结束后对大家有以下叮嘱: (一)初试成绩如果理想的,马上关注复试。今年考生人数多、初试人数多,如果进了复试以后,可能需要考分拉开很大的差距,以上海财经大学为例:初试大家扎堆在228之间,但是复试环节会加权重以区分。初试只是第一关,后面复试要求更高,所以成绩比较理想的马上进入圣诞节狂欢以后,元旦就不要休息了,直接进入复试环节。 (二)初试一般的同学,选了管理类联考,就等于选择了一条大路。比如说,对于考全日制MPAcc的同学来说,这次不理想,可以关注非全日制MPAcc,考211院校分数也比现在全日制MPAcc少二三十分;两年以后还可以考在职MPAcc,或者工作很顺,职场发展很好,没有时间读书,有条件了可以读MBA、MPA,就看你在什么行业了。 通过新东方在线课程学习,对你的人生可能是一次正能量的激励,正能量的规划。只要后面不断学习、不断努力,总归会成功的,研究生早晚有一天会拿下! [详情]

2017年考研数学三:基础考查仍占主导
2017年考研数学三:基础考查仍占主导

  2017年数学(三)试卷的难度从整体上看与往年相当,基本上没有偏题、怪题,题型大部分是往年常考题型,考生较容易入手,个别题目比较新颖,思路比较灵活,从命题思路和趋势上来看,还是同往年一样,注重考查对基本概念、基本理论和基本计算方法的理解和综合运用能力。 在教育部考试中心所颁布的考试大纲中,对数学考试的考查目标是这样规定的:要求考生比较系统地理解数学的基本概念和基本理论,掌握数学的基本方法,具备抽象思维能力、逻辑推理能力、空间想象能力、运算能力和综合运用所学的知识分析问题和解决问题的能力。 从以上这段叙述中,我们不难发现,考研数学并不是要求报考的考生用对待数学竞赛的方式准备考试,而是要求考生抓住基础,即基本概念、基本理论以及基本方法。与此同时,在试卷上列出的所有题目中,70%的题目都是围绕着基础给出的。从今年数学三的整张试卷来看,高等数学部分,13个题,共82分,占总分的54.67%,考查的都是重要知识点,常规内容,题型都是常规题型,以计算为主,计算量稍大。总体来看,高等数学部分中的很多题型都是每年常考的题型,题意明确,并没有特别复杂的难题。线性代数部分,5个题,共34分,占总分22%。难度比往年相当,以基本题型、基本计算为主。 此外,由于全国研究生招生考试从测量学的角度来说,它属于“常模参照”考试,即选拔性考试。根据这个方针,则试卷的命题既要有利于国家选拔高层次的专门人才,又要符合高等学校教学的原则。因此,考试的宗旨为:在考查知识的基础上,采用科学的方式重点考查考生分析问题和解决实际问题的能力。在这个宗旨下,题目的出题导向重在检验考生对基本知识、基本理论和基本方法的理解和掌握。因此考生如果在平常的复习中不能做到真正理解这些基本知识和基本理论,而只是单纯地记忆,就很难在考试中得以正常发挥。[详情]

2017考研数学二真题填空题
2017考研数学二真题填空题

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2017年考研报名人数首破200万 多地增幅创新高
2017年考研报名人数首破200万 多地增幅创新高

  原标题:2017年考研报名人数首破200万 多地增幅创新高 24日,2017年全国硕士研究生招生考试开考,据教育部发布的消息,共有201万人报名参加本次考试。这一数字较上年增加24万,增幅超过13%,创下历史新高。 增长—— 报名人数首破200万人 多地大幅增长 根据教育部发布的数据,共有201万人报名参加本次硕士研究生招考。中新网(微信公众号:cns2012)记者注意到,近十年来,每年考研的报名人数均在120万以上,到2016年达到了177万,本次报名人数则首度超过200万人。 各地报名情况如何?中新网记者梳理发现,本次考研,河南、辽宁、黑龙江等地报名人数创新高。以河南为例,报名确认考生15.66万人,比2016年增加2.07万人,报考人数和增幅均创历史新高。 此外,北京、广东、新疆、江西等地报名人数均出现了20%以上的增幅,广东较上年增幅更是达到了38.5%,新疆则是达到32.18%。 值得一提的是,北京、江苏、上海等地由于名校资源丰富、经济发展水平较高,今次考研仍是考生报考的热门地区。以北京为例,今次报考北京研究生招生单位的考生为28.9万人(不含推荐免试生),同比增加18.9%。其中,报考北京大学、清华大学等10所高校的考生均超过万人。 原因—— 在职研究生首次纳入统考 今次考研报名人数增幅较大,在职研究生首次纳入统考成一大原因。与往年考研相比,2017年考研的一大变化是,在职研究生首次纳入统考。这也意味着,全日制、非全日制研究生招生考试首次统筹管理、合并进行。 日前,中国教育在线发布的《2017年全国研究生招生数据调查报告》显示,报考非全日制硕士研究生的考生占比明显,北京、江西的报考人数占比达到13.1%、10.7%。 就业压力,也是今次考研人数增长的一大因素。中国教育在线针对2017年全国硕士研究生报考动机进行在线调查,数据显示,35%的被调查者选择“本科就业压力大,提升就业竞争力”。值得注意的是,因“继续深造,提高学术研究能力”选择考研的人仍占不小比重,达到31%。另外有19%的被调查者是“为了获得学历、学位证书”而考研。 此外,中公教育考研研究院院长李擂此前在接受中新网记者采访时分析,目前中国就业人员的学历普遍升高,本科学历难度较低,想要在人群中脱颖出来,进一步提升学历成为更多人的选择,所以2017年考研的报考人数继续突破。 现场—— 考前十多分钟 一些在职考生慌忙找考场 今年考研的时间为12月24日至26日,24日,在中国传媒大学考点,早上7点50分,考点前早早地聚集了数百名排队等候入场的考生。8时左右,经过安检及身份认证后,考生们陆续进入考场。 中新网记者注意到,有些考生“姗姗来迟”,在考前十多分钟,他们仍急于在考点前的座位安排表上找座位。这些考生中许多为在职考生,据了解,由于工作原因,他们中的很多人,并没有提前到考场踩点,因此,只能在早晨的匆忙中走进考场。 虽然参加考研的考生都是大学生或者上班族,但是,在考点外,也有不少考生家长在清晨寒冷的天气中“送考”。 有家长告诉记者,家里人对孩子这次考试很重视,“希望孩子能考个好成绩,现在,我就想等到考试铃响后再走,这样比较安心。”(吕春荣) 责任编辑:张梦媛[详情]

研究生为考公务员拼了:只要考上立马退学
研究生为考公务员拼了:只要考上立马退学

  编者按:一年一度的考研初试在11月24日拉开了序幕。对很多大学生来说,毕业之前无非都在忙活这三件事:找工作、考研或考公务员。对考研大军来说,为了能够进入理想的院校继续深造,需要付出超乎寻常的努力。然而,考研有时候仅是无奈的选择。你的考研到底又是为了什么? 对王然来说,来这所研究生院最大的价值,就是为自己“考碗”找了个自习室。 王然在空荡荡的自习室复习。摄影 中国周刊记者 “考碗族”是指到处参加公务员考试,不考到一个“饭碗”不罢休的人。 研一刚开学两个多月,他逃课了两个多月,成天泡在图书馆复习国考。班上的同学,几乎都不知道还有他这么一个人。 花高昂的学费却不来上课,多少有点资源浪费。但他不这样认为—等到研究生毕业,自己一样还得考公务员,多耗三年时间金钱,才是真正的烧包。 他已经考过五次,如果这次成功了,王然决定立马退学。 “也算小资生活” 一副薄边眼镜配上眉清目秀的模样,王然文质彬彬的。 采访当天,他早早迎在校门前。进教学楼的时候,他放缓脚步站下,微微欠身,伸出左手做了个“请”的动作,让记者先进门。 到了休息室的桌子前,他快步拉出椅子,以同样的姿势招呼:“您先坐。” 选择走公务员这条路,他是经过深思熟虑的。 本科期间,他一直担任班上的团支书。大三大四两年,因为党支书忙着外出实习,班里的党支部活动、思想汇报,都由他来牵头组织。 大家都在找工作,参与热情不高。他得费劲巴拉挨个电话通知。日子久了,一有啥党务工作,辅导员索性直接找他干。 他摊了摊手:“这种费力不讨好的活儿,我不干谁来干?”不过,从语气和表情透露,他挺怀念那段日子。 “脑袋不小,你小子以后是块当官的材料。”小时候,家里人经常摸着他的头这么说。因为是长男,长辈们很重视王然的家教。 王然的老家是一个距离成都市几十里外的偏僻县城。10岁时,王然的父母就去了浙江做小生意,只有过年才回来。老家的墙上,贴满了他从小到大拿过的奖状。每次有客人拜访,参观这面奖状墙时都会赞不绝口:“以后肯定有出息!” 懵懂时期,他觉得家里“最有出息”的是他二大爷。 那时候,二大爷从当地教育系统调入镇政府,几年后成了镇长,后来又升入市里任职。他记得,这位胖胖的长辈有点谢顶,头发抹得油光锃亮,整天一身西服皮鞋,说话口气和蔼,慢条斯理。他平日里很忙,经常有陪酒应酬,一见王然,就50块、100块地递零花钱给他。而带他下馆子,吃完饭结账,向来都要开发票。这时候,老板会推脱递过来的饭钱:“不用不用,先记账本上吧。” “给人感觉很儒雅,活得很潇洒。”王然评价道。他对公务员最初的理解,就是“当官的”。 从初中到高中,王然的成绩一直排名年级前列,大学本科读的是新闻系,主要理由是因为填报志愿时,发现这是学校里分数很高的几个专业之一。 虽然学的是新闻,但他认为自己性格和条件,挺适合做公务员:“工作稳定,可以回家离父母近一些,而且老家还有点关系。 此外,如果想往上走,努力干出点成绩结识些人脉,还是有机会的;如果不习惯官场的争斗,到时候可以选择独善其身,一辈子做个小公务员,在我们那儿也算是小资生活。 “典型的万人坑” 其实,考公务员是也被现实逼出来的。 此前只知道刻苦学习的王然,在大学宽松的环境里,渐渐“迷失堕落”了。“四年的时间,大部分花在了电脑游戏上。” 大二那年暑假,他有过唯一一次正经八百的实习经历,去电视台帮忙做节目策划。几个月下来,自觉没啥收获,就主动离开了。渐渐地,他发现自己对新闻这行当并不是特别感兴趣,“没有追问精神”,“不太适合干新闻这行”。 大四那年,因为经济形势不景气,就业形势严峻。和很多为找工作发愁的同学一样,他也做了两手准备,一边考研,一边复习公务员资料。 精力不够用,这是他第一次国考失败的主要教训。 2012年11月份,他第一次参加国家公务员考试,报考单位是成都市金牛区税务局。他并没有选择老家县城里的岗位。“当时心气儿很高,要么留北京,要么去成都市里当公务员。”他解释,“唉,太理想主义了。” 这个岗位录取率是300:1,全国各地都有分考点。去中国政法大学考试那天,他带着高考时候的手表,现场也跟高考似曾相识,人挤人,入考场前都还一个个抱着资料看。 成绩出来,惨不忍睹,他已经预料到了:“就当练手长经验吧。” 2013初,他结束了研究生考试,自我感觉不错。成绩还没出来,王然打算再去试试北京市公务员考试。他报考的目标是海淀区地税局。录取率是120:1,理论上比成都金牛区税务局算是容易些,可竞争仍然残酷。 “海关、地税和国税,这些单位是典型的万人坑,因为报考的人太多了。”他说。但他还是毫不犹豫地“跳进了坑里”。那个“税”字,给他第一印象就是“很有钱”,万一运气好呢? 有了第一次的经验,他这次花了不少时间,复习得很细致。 他个人感觉,北京的试卷内容比国考相对简单些,但题量非常大。拿到卷子他便飞快地写,遇到不会的就跳过去,就这样还险些没做完。考试结束的铃声响起,考场里一个女孩还在玩命地涂答题卡。考试期间,王然扫过她一眼,当时女孩可能被某道题难住了,迟迟没往下写。 收卷子的时候,监考老师跳了过去,去收她后面的。十几秒后再回来,就开始强行收答题卡了。“老师,让我再涂一会儿吧!”她拽着没松手,眼泪一下流出来,但有大半没涂完的答题卡还是被夺走了。女孩只能呆呆地坐着抽泣。 也许她准备了很长时间,也许这次机会对她非常重要,王然心里也替她叹了口气。 “被一两道题拖延住犯了大忌。首先要保证把能拿到的分都拿到,拉分的题,你不会,大家可能都不会。”按照他的理解,这份试卷实际也在考察全局观和应变速度。没有这两种能力,就很难应对公务员实际工作中遇到的问题。 第一场教室里还坐满了考生。到了下午申论考试的时候,就出现了三分之一的空座。他分析,很多人因为上午没考好,就主动放弃了。 他自己也没那么幸运。最后王然拿了138分,而地税局的入围成绩线是150多分。 不久,他的考研成绩也出来了,距目标人民大学法学院差了2分。 十分钟后,他便从悲伤中缓过劲儿来。虽然没进海淀地税局的面试,但他可以选择调剂面试其他几个岗位:西城区城市管理综合行政执法监察局(西城城管),昌平区工商管理局,以及几个街道办事处。 这是毕业前,能抓住的最后机会了。 有劲儿没处使 王然现在还悔恨不已,自己竟然早上睡过头,错过了工商局的面试。 剩下的机会,就是当城管或去街道办事处。最初,他没有考虑过这些岗位。母亲做过小贩,多次被城管态度恶劣地抄过摊儿,他一直对这个职业很抵触。他的一位学长就在某街道办事处工作,虽然各种福利挺好,但每月2000多元的收入,在北京仅能够糊口。 后来,另一位在北京某区当城管的师兄告诉他,北京的城管和外省市不同,是公务员待遇,月薪近5000元。“一个iPhone5啊!”听罢,王然心动了。 面试那天,一共有40多个人,录取名额是20个。他穿着西服,心情忐忑,一看见里面坐着的7个考官,更没底儿了。“别紧张,放松。”一个中年大姐笑容和蔼,显然是唱红脸的。他没法不紧张,边上一个皮肤黝黑,身材魁梧的大哥,一言不发,从始至终目光凶狠地盯着自己。王然特别重视这次机会,本来就紧张。一看这阵势,吓得说话都结巴了。 因发挥失常,他没能当上这个城管。后来他琢磨,可能是因为这一行太特殊了,需要极强的心理素质,所以才会安排一个凶神恶煞的人唱黑脸,以测试高压下的反应能力。 面试经验不足,这是个惨痛的教训。后来,他从各大公务员网站论坛上,学习了一套一套的面试技巧,还特地买了书恶补。 “实际上,面试问题都是有规律的。”他拉开了话匣子,“回答也是有模板的。” 比如,有个面试的问题是:一向口无遮拦的同事小张,向领导举报你在办公时间打手机,而你实际上是在接一个紧急公事的电话。向领导解释了真实情况后,你将如何对待这位说你坏话的小张? “回答前,一定不能忘了礼仪,得一本正经地先说‘各位领导、老师大家好’,做自我介绍。”他清了清嗓子,像模像样地模仿起来,“还得装出一副深思熟虑的样子,然后抬起头—首先,我认为出现这种情况是很正常的,一定要以大局为重,我会私下里和小张聊一聊,说明情况……最后,我会坦诚地告诉他,这不会影响我们今后的关系,希望能互相帮助,把工作做好。” 与媒体打交道也是个重要类型。发生重大事故,面对前来的记者你该怎么做? “发生这类事件,首先绝不能隐瞒信息,我会主动提供一些了解到的情况,并希望记者朋友将政府部门的处理进展如实地传达给公众……” 他张嘴就来,语调不快不慢,没有一个地方出现磕巴。 可当大家都按这个模板回答问题,怎么分出个高下? 他微微一笑,“拿分的诀窍,是套话后面的具体处理措施。你说得细节越清晰、可行性越强,得分就越高。” 遗憾的是,那次是王然唯一一次进面试环节。之后的几次他都没通过笔试,有劲儿也没处使。 奔波在火车上 他四处寻找公务员招录机会,大部分时间都花在往返的火车上。 今年4月份,他参加了天津市公务员考试,报考某税务部门。他多次报考税务局的公务员,除了觉得待遇福利较高外,还因为这个岗位对新闻专业本科生不设限制,其他合适的对口岗位太少了。 路途不算辛苦,坐58块钱的动车到了天津,却发现考点没地方住。一共有200多人报考,附近的酒店、小旅馆早就预订满了。“没报好,又一个热门岗位。” 成绩不太理想,王然并没有气馁。 此外,他做了一个艰难的选择。他的考研成绩可以被调剂到一所研究生院的法学硕士专业,但没有奖学金,一年学费一万六。父母还是决定供他读书,这样一来,家里经济状况有点吃紧。 这促使他加快了“考碗”的步伐。 研究生开学后,他只上了一个星期的课,就开始躲进图书馆,潜心复习公务员考试。 频频失败的报考经历使他认清了现实:与其在大城市拼得头破血流,不如回到父母身边,安全感更高些。 第四次,他报了四川崇州市委、市人民政府公务接待的岗位,单位离老家两个多小时车程。按他的理解,所谓的“接待”应该是个与党和政府领导接触机会较多的工作。 今年,他没跟老师打招呼,就偷偷坐上了从北京开往成都的硬卧火车。路上的28个小时他也没闲着,一直看复习。他从网上下载了近10G在线培训视频,还买了不少公务员名师的光盘,已经反反复复看了好几遍。 下了火车,他马不停蹄坐车往家赶,到家已经天黑了,简单吃过饭便抓紧休息。第二天上午坐了3个多小时长途车,中午到达崇州。没想到,这个事业编岗位的竞争也达到了300:1.附近的小宾馆全部客满,一下午都没找到落脚的地方。最后,他只能住在一个离考点不算近,而且价格不菲的大酒店里。 考试题型法律方面的居多,这对读法硕的王然没啥难度。但一路的折腾,他有点乱了分寸,过分纠结于数学题,影响了答题时间。 第二天早上,没来得及跟家里的父亲打声招呼,他就急匆匆赶往火车站回了北京。学校有门行政法的课程,与公务员考试内容有关。这也是他唯一不会翘的课。 他又坐火车来到老家,参加了四川省省考,岗位是老家的地税局。这次虽然没有再纠结于数学题,可他感觉考得一般。 此行还收获了一段友谊,一个没有找到地方住的山西考生,与自己分摊了200块钱的房费。夜里闲聊,对方告诉王然,自己是辞职之后来参加考试的。此前他在陕西一家国企工作,工资拿得不少,却不满总是被部门其他人“欺负”—只有他不是关系户,所有的活儿都推到他身上。他觉得公务员不用这么受气,因为有考评,“大家都得干活儿”。 临别时,对方告诉他:“你要是考上了一定要告诉我,没准咱们就是同事啦。” 回老家往返考一次试,光路上要马不停耗费三天,在车上最长要28小时,最短要3个小时。这一个来回,他根本没歇脚。 “人生无根蒂,飘如陌上尘。”他用陶渊明的一句诗作形容。 最后一搏 早上8点,他会慢悠悠前往图书馆,学上半天,中午午休一会儿,下午继续看书。晚九点图书馆闭馆,王然会随便挑一个自习室,学到11点再回去睡觉。晚上,他会听听汪峰的歌睡觉,最喜欢的两首是《再见,青春》和《飞得更高》。 学校里的一切教学活动,似乎都与自己毫无关系了。这所研究生院,不设本科部,位于北京边缘,四周一片荒凉。一个班上有100多个学生,上大课教学。如果老师点名,宿舍的一个哥们儿会主动替他喊到,如果提问也一并答了。 有一次他想换换脑筋,参加了班里的羽毛球比赛。很多同学都不认识他,以为是对手“从校外搬来的救兵”。 “这么说吧,班主任都记不得我的名字,更别提认识我了。”他说。 这次他报名的是邮政管理系统的岗位,工作单位在老家所在市。这很可能是自己最后一次考公务员,他把全部精力都扑上去了。刚刚把最近两年的真题做了一遍,接下来正打算把五年来的真题再做一遍,一天一套。这次他感觉希望很大。 为了避免笔试通过,面试被“黑”掉,他家里也做足了准备。自己的三奶奶以前在县里担任要职,人脉很广,之前二大爷能够高升,也多亏她四处走动。这也一直让爷爷耿耿于怀,一直跟她说:“你没提拔我的儿子,这次得帮帮我的孙子!”现在,父亲告诉王然,三奶奶已经放下话了,只要笔试通过,面试基本没多大问题。 无论是省考还是国考,只要笔试成绩通过了,他就会立即把研究生退了,“还能省下不少学费”。 万一笔试成绩没过呢?他挺担心最坏的情况发生,所以话说得很谨慎:“可能,我就暂时放弃考公务员了。毕竟一个研究生还是比本科生有优势。自己会努力保证不挂科,拿下学位。” 不过这并不意味着王然就此放弃了“考碗”的努力:“毕业之后还会考的,有些地方,研究生学历的公务员,入职后可以直接享受主任公务员待遇—这相当于一个本科生学历的人,在工作岗位上干了三年的结果!” (文中人物为化名) (原标题:研究生为考公务员拼了:只要考上立马退学)责编:王小贝[详情]

考上研究生才能结婚 准婆婆奇葩要求愁坏女大学生
考上研究生才能结婚 准婆婆奇葩要求愁坏女大学生

  2017年考研初试于12月24日-12月26日举行。据教育部公布的数据,全国考研人数共计201万,比去年增长近14%,创下考研人数历史新高。当然,考研并不是大学生的唯一选择,但是一对武汉的大学生情侣却“遭遇”男方母亲提出的“奇葩”要求:双方必须至少有一人考上研究生。 在此前的考研结果公布后,两人第二次考研失败,无奈只能推迟婚期再考第三次。日前,小情侣中的女孩小王在百度贴吧“研究生吧”发贴吐槽:“学渣真无奈,这年头考 不上研究生,连婚都结不了。”贴子引发众多网友的关注与讨论。 在这篇“我该怎么办?!!婆婆奇葩要求,考不上研究生不准结婚!“的贴子 中,90后女孩小王讲述了自己和男友为大学同班同学,两人从大一相识后开始交往,感情一直非常好。毕业之前她和男友就达成一致要成为“毕婚族”:“毕业的 时候,一手结婚证一手学位证,多美好啊!”没想到,他们这一“浪漫”的想法遭到了准婆婆的反对。准婆婆明确要求,他们两人中必须有一个人考上研究生才能够 结婚,还表示,如果两人都能考上研究生,就给他们买婚房,考研成绩优异的话,还可奖励一辆车。 在吧友的追问下,小王道出了准婆婆奇葩要 求的由来原来准婆婆年轻的时候,由于家境不好,没上过几年学,后经人介绍与丈夫结婚。两人婚后为了养育孩子,每日起早贪黑的忙碌:养过猪、开过饭馆、小卖 店,最终辛苦“打拼”出现在的物质条件。经历这些事情后,准婆婆认准了一个“道理”:只有有文化,才能不用生活的这么辛苦。而且她认为儿子和女友现在还很 年轻,应该努力学习才对,因此提出让两个孩子好好学习,考上研究生,成为“文化人”。 考虑到考研后将要获得的丰厚奖励,小王也心动了。 一番权衡利弊之下,王小姐决定自己“亲自上阵”:“男友连英语四级都是次次不落的考,结果次次考不过,指望他是肯定不行了,我还是自己来吧。”为了坚定小 王的考研决心,准婆婆还要求其写下一份保证书,保证两人在她考研成功之前绝不结婚。 令小王没想到的是,本以为通过自己的努力可以成功考 研,却接连遭遇了2次失败,这让小王很恼火,考研带来的压力也使原本感情不错的小两口发生过不少争吵,“我压力大的时候,脾气就不好,无法控制的想向他发 脾气。”眼看小王两次考研落败,她的准婆婆却仍然不肯松口让他们结婚,反而鼓励她“再努把力,考出个好成绩“。面对准婆婆的要求,小王万般无奈,在贴吧发 贴吐槽自己的经历。 小王的贴子发出后,获得了不少吧友的安慰和鼓励。因为小王之前经常在贴吧里的研究生吧、考研吧和吧友交流考题方向、 考研经验,一些热心吧友纷纷为她支招。有人鼓励小王不要沮丧气馁,和自己一起继续备考,还有吧友表示愿意把自己的一些复习资料和经验与她分享。但也有吧友 认为,小王准婆婆的要求是对婚姻的不尊重,只要感情好,何来那么多外在限制条件呢!更有吧友表示,没想到已经算是高学历的知识女性也会遇到这样的“恶婆 婆”,劝他们早日分手,因为即使结婚,在这样的家庭中也难获自由。 对此,记者咨询了情感心理方面的专家,专家表示:这位准婆婆的要求是 一种典型的家长把自己意志强加在孩子身上的做法。追求高学历与要求有车有房等外在条件一样,对这些的过度追求,反而会给孩子们的幸福造成一种压力。在情感 面前,不应该设置太多的障碍,应该意识到良好的情感才是幸福婚姻的基础。[详情]

2017广东考研人数增幅全国第一
2017广东考研人数增幅全国第一

  2017年考研初试于12月24日-12月26日举行。据教育部公布的数据,全国考研人数共计201万,比去年增长近14%,创下考研人数历史新高。在新浪教育公布的微博调查中,超过七成的网友认为,就业难促使更多人通过读研来刷高学历。不过,考研人数的增加也存在政策原因:最新公布的研招政策将在职研究生考试纳入统考,这也导致了参加统考的人数大幅增长。 在各省市地区中,广东省2017年研究生考试报考人数为85307人,比上年增加2.3万人,增长38.5%,增幅位居全国第一。 江苏、北京、辽宁、黑龙江、江西等地人数增幅分别达到24.8%、20.8%、20.2%、18.6%、18.5%。在报名考生中,报考非全日制硕士研究生的考生占比明显,北京、江西报考人数占比达到13.1%、10.7%。[详情]

今年201万人考研 研究生学历还值不值钱?
今年201万人考研 研究生学历还值不值钱?

  2017年全国硕士研究生招生考试昨天起举行,今年研究生招生考试报名人数大幅增长,共有201万考生参加了考试。 近十年来,每年考研的报名人数均在120万以上,但同时专家也指出,今年是因为把在职的研究生纳入统考之后出现的大幅的反弹,而非考研报考实际人数增加。 事实上,2014年以前的20年,我国硕士研究生招生考试热度一直升温,报名人数平均每年增加10万-15万人。但从2014年起,研究生考试报名人数出现下滑,保持多年的考研热持续两年“降温”。 虽然因经济增长乏力,就业形势严峻等导致2016年度研究生报名人数出现明显反弹。有关人士依然分析称,考研热降温将成为“新常态”,学历贬值或是生源危机主因。现在的研究生真的不“值钱”了吗? 研究生就业率不如本科? 研究生就业率竟不如本专科生,这样的新闻自2009年起就从未间断,尽管高校毕业生就业率“注水”早已不是新闻,但是每年类似的报道还是将研究生教育推到社会的风口浪尖。 2009年至2011年,曾经出现研究生连续三年就业率低于本科生的状况,这让很多研究生觉得很心塞,“找工作时,我还没本科生抢手,这研究生读的真闹心。” 然而,就业率的统计数字是一组容易被误读的数据。 一方面,本科生和研究生的求职档位不同。在各大招聘网站上,除了发布工作职位、薪资待遇、等信息外,还附带了用人单位对求职者的学历要求。大专、本科、研究生……不同的工作,对应的学历要求各不相同,这充分说明本科生和研究生二者的求职档位有所不同。 据业内人士透露,如果研究生放弃同档竞争,选择“降档求职”时,研究生更有优势。换言之,研究生降档竞争优势巨大,本科生升档竞争几乎没有胜算。 此外,“就业率”包括继续深造人数。在就业率统计中,继续升学深造被视为已就业,考研升学可以说已成为当下本科生毕业后的重要“出路”,乃至造就了本科生较高的就业率。 与此相对的是研究生读博的比例要远远小于本科读研比例,人们对此并非不了解,而一旦谈及具体的就业率时,更多地只看整体,却很少细究其中工作签约的比率。 以上海市某所高校2011年的就业数据为例,研究生总数为3487人,其中升学和出国人数分别为118人和187人,签约人数为2428人,占总数的69.63%。 反观本科生,总数为3044人,其中升学和出国人数分别是852人和760人,签约人数则仅有1149人,仅占总数的37.74%。 这意味着,从传统意义上的就业指标即与第三方法人签约的数量来看,研究生的就业率可以达到69.63%,本科生仅有37.74%,而超过50%的本科生都要通过在国内或者国外读研深造来完成“就业”。 值得注意的是,两者的求职期长度也是不同的。 一般本科生学制4年,硕士研究生学制2至3年。通常来说,本科生的毕业压力相对小于研究生,这导致许多本科生很早就开始找工作,有些甚至大四上学期就步入职场;而研究生论文压力较大,特别是临近毕业时,根本无心求职。总的来说,研究生的求职期只有半年,而本科生的求职期则将近一年。 不过,不可否认的是,随着不断扩招,研究生教育掺水,其学历“含金量”确实有所下降。 研究生扩招始于2003年,当年全国高校共招收研究生26万人。2016年,全国共招收51.7万名研究生,13年间研究生招生规模翻了一番。 2004年-2016年全国考研报名人数与录取人数 有专家表示,在研究生招生规模扩大的同时,高校的教育资源却没有同步增长和提高,一名导师带数十名研究生的实例屡见不鲜,论文抄袭等问题层出,研究生的科研能力和实践能力很多不尽如人意,用人单位常常发出质疑。 不时传出的“研究生找不到工作”的尴尬,可能暴露出研究生规模不断扩大的同时,培养模式却存在很多问题,但不必大而化之地全盘否定研究生教育的意义与价值。 研究生比本专科生薪资高? 尽管读研,在经济上也增加了不少的成本,但是本科生和硕士生在就业薪资上比较起来,依然是硕士生更具有竞争力。 以2015年数据为例,第三方教育数据咨询和评估机构麦可思公布的薪酬数据显示,一线城市,本科生的平均薪资在4364元,硕士生平均薪资为6503元;二线城市,本科生平均薪资为3692元,硕士生为5436元;其他城市,本科生平均薪资为3162元,硕士生为4821元。 在不同起薪的岗位上,硕士生和本科生的薪资优势也有所差异。 在起薪超过一万的岗位上,硕士生的薪酬优势更为明显,但是起薪处在5000-8000元的范围之间时,硕士生的优势并不明显,相反企业更愿意选择让本科生来完成岗位工作。 以时下热门的金融行业为例,将2014年本科生起薪和硕士生起薪进行了对比可见,处在尾端的,5000元以下的起薪,本科生(9.1%)和硕士生(8.7%)的比例相差不大。 但是,起薪10000元以上的比例,硕士生(21.7%)的比例明显高于本科生(13.6%)。 起薪处于中间段的5000-8000元,本科生更具有优势,本科生比例(40.9%)要高于硕士生(34.8%)。8000-10000元的起薪中,本科(36.4%)和硕士生(34.8%)的比例比较接近,但本科生依然保持了一定的薪酬优势。 综合分析来看,硕士生的薪资在整体上是要比本科生多一些,但是也要根据行业和岗位来进行区分。但是如果算上两年读研的“时间成本”,总体差距并不明显。 所以,不是所有专业都适合考研,也不是所有专业研究生都比本专科生有薪资优势,考研必须要和自己攻读专业的知识特点以及今后应用和发展前景联系在一起。有些硕士毕业生之所以感到就业难或与本科生工资待遇无差别,很可能是因为自己的专业并不适合考研。 研究生的隐性优势 除就业率和薪金待遇外,读研究生还有三大隐性优势。 找工作起点高一点 随着高校扩招研究生越来越多,本科生找工作的压力变得很大。虽说国家严厉禁止在招聘公告中写出985或211的硬性门槛要求,但是现实中它还是隐形的存 在着。 同时,现在很多的招聘信息都明确写出,即使是实习研究生的工资也比本科生多。因此对于一些普通院校的学生来说,考上研究生是增加自己竞争力的一个有 效途径。此外,很多人担心读研究生期间没有工作机会,其实不然。 很多大公司都愿意招收一些正在读研一、研二的学生当实习生,由于研究生的起点高一点,你会 有更多的机会去实习或兼职。 考公务员或编制底子厚一点 每年的国考或是省考都是应届毕业生的首选,即使现在国家政策有一些改变但是报名的热情依旧不减。而对于研究生们来说,报考此类考试应该更加有竞争力。 查看一下历年考试职位表,很多好的职位其硬性条件都是要求研究生学历。此外,研究生的应试能力较强。你在研究生期间所锻炼出 来的考试能力、论文写作能力在公务员考试中是绝对加分的。 新的起点,开阔眼界 人们 都说到了一个什么环境,就会变成一个什么样的人,有什么样的圈子。而我们考研的目的就是能够开阔视野,感受不一样的学习氛围。 有什么样的环境培养什么样的性格和习惯。研究生和本科生本身没有什么可比性。如果上了研究生以后,懒散,不自律等等,那就会白白浪费两年甚至三年的时间。如果好好学习,努力奋进,两三年的学习时间,会沉淀很多,得到很多,锻炼很多。 至于目前部分研究生就业难的状况,他们主要遭遇的是专业性结构遇冷,专业性强的毕业生就业相对容易,但所学专业比较宽泛的毕业生则“一筹莫展”,这类专业通常与市场接轨不够,任课老师经验有限,毕业生的实践也有所欠缺。 正如21世纪教育研究院副院长熊丙奇说,近年来一些高校在鼓励本科生考研方面做得很努力,但往往忽视了本科阶段基本能力的培养,以至于有些人考上了研究生却连最基本的实验都不会做。 考研的目的是选拔优秀人才,而不是弄成另一种应试教育,否则,将来的硕士文凭会变得越来越不值钱。 (原标题:现在的研究生学历还值不值钱?)责编:王小贝[详情]

2017年考研英语二真题及答案解析
2017年考研英语二真题及答案解析

  2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二) Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text。 Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET。 (10 points) People have speculated for centuries about a future without work 。Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology be replacing human workers。 Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 。 A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland。 A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one 4 by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives 5 , people will simply become lazy and depressed。 6 , today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time。 One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans。 Also, some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting 9 poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs。 Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future。 But it doesn’t  11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease。 Such visions are based on the  12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment。 In the  13 of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could  14 strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure。 Today, the  15 of work may be a bit overblown。 “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway。 These days, because leisure time is relatively  16 for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional  17 of their jobs。 “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel  18 ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself  19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for  20 matters。 1。[A] boasting           [B] denying          [C] warning          [D] ensuring [答案][C] warning 2。[A] inequality         [B] instability       [C] unreliability    [D] uncertainty [答案][A] inequality 3。[A] policy              [B]guideline         [C] resolution      [D] prediction [答案][D] prediction 4。[A] characterized [B]divided            [C] balanced           [D]measured [答案][A] characterized 5。[A] wisdom          [B] meaning           [C] glory              [D] freedom [答案][B] meaning 6。[A] Instead                [B] Indeed        [C] Thus           [D] Nevertheless [答案][B] Indeed 7。[A] rich                   [B] urban                  [C]working         [D] educated [答案][C] working 8。[A] explanation          [B] requirement        [C] compensation     [D] substitute [答案][A] explanation 9。[A] under                  [B] beyond            [C] alongside          [D] among [答案][D] among 10。[A] leave behind      [B] make up            [C] worry about          [D] set aside [答案][C] worry about 11。[A] statistically      [B] occasionally             [C] necessarily      [D] economically [答案][C] necessarily 12。[A] chances           [B] downsides            [C] benefits   [D] principles [答案][B] downsides 13。[A] absence               [B] height               [C] face            [D] course [答案][A] absence 14。[A] disturb              [B] restore               [C] exclude           [D] yield [答案][D] yield 15。[A] model                [B] practice                [C] virtue          [D] hardship [答案][C] virtue 16。[A] tricky                  [B] lengthy                [C] mysterious        [D] scarce [答案][D] scarce 17。[A] demands         [B] standards             [C] qualities         [D] threats [答案][A] demands 18。[A] ignored           [B] tired                  [C] confused          [D] starved [答案][B] tired   19。[A] off         [B] against               [C] behind          [D] into [答案][D] into 20。[A] technological          [B] professional            [C] educational      [D] interpersonal [答案][B] professional Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts。 Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET。 (40 points) Text 1 Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park。 The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad。 Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers。 Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour。 Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing。 Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London。 Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches。 The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners。 It has not happened。 The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run—up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster。 Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate。 The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved。 Obesity has risen among adults and children。 Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation。” The success of Parkrun offers answers。 Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock。 The ethos welcomes anybody。 There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining。 The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes。 The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers。 Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations。 If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools。 But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education。 Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive。 Or at least not make them worse。 According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has 。 [A] gained great popularity [B] created many jobs [C] strengthened community ties [D] become an official festival [答案][A] gained great popularity The author believes that London’s Olympic“legacy” has failed to 。 [A] boost population growth [B] promote sport participation [C] improve the city’s image [D] increase sport hours in schools [答案][B] promote sport participation Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it 。 [A] aims at discovering talents [B] focuses on mass competition [C] does not emphasize elitism [D] does not attract first-timers [答案][C] does not emphasize elitism With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should 。 [A] organize “grassroots” sports events [B] supervise local sports associations [C] increase funds for sports clubs [D] invest in public sports facilities [答案][D] invest in public sports facilities The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is 。 [A] tolerant [B] critical [C] uncertain [D] sympathetic [答案][B] critical Text 2 With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about their own screen use。 “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement。 It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine。 ” Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise。 She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children。 During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family。 Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention。 Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device—it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children。 Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s。 In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention。 “Parents don’t have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky。 On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them。” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child。 Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way。 This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time。 According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______。 [A] simplify routine matters [B] absorb user attention [C] better interpersonal relations [D] increase work efficiency [答案][B] absorb user attention Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices ______。 [A] takes away babies’ appetite [B] distracts children’s attention [C] slows down babies’ verbal development [D] reduces mother-child communication [答案][D] reduces mother-child communication Radesky’s cites the “still face experiment” to show that _______。 [A] it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions [B] verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange [C] children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood [D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs [答案][D] parents need to respond to children’s emotional needs The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______。 [A] protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies [B] teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year [C] ensure constant interaction with their children [D] remain concerned about kid’s use of screens [答案][C] ensure constant interaction with their children According to Tronick, kid’s use of screens may_______。 [A] give their parents some free time [B] make their parents more creative [C] help them with their homework [D] help them become more attentive [答案][A] give their parents some free time Text 3 Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year。 After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn’t feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic。 But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years。 There’s always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career。 But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits—in fact, it probably enhances it。 Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not。 Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most。 Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders。 If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices。 According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once。 This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes。 It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game。 At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department。 Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on。 One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that 。 [A] they think it academically misleading [B] they have a lot of fun to expect in college [C] it feels strange to do differently from others [D] it seems worthless to take off-campus courses [答案][C] it feels strange to do differently from others Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps 。 [A] keep students from being unrealistic [B] lower risks in choosing careers [C] ease freshmen’s financial burdens [D] relieve freshmen of pressures [答案][D] relieve freshmen of pressures The word “acclimation” (Line 8, Para。 3) is closest in meaning to 。 [A] adaptation [B] application [C] motivation [D] competition [答案][A] adaptation A gap year may save money for students by helping them 。 [A] avoid academic failures [B] establish long-term goals [C] switch to another college [D] decide on the right major [答案][D] decide on the right major The most suitable title for this text would be 。 [A] In Favor of the Gap Year [B] The ABCs of the Gap Year [C] The Gap Year Comes Back [D] The Gap Year: A Dilemma [答案][A] In Favor of the Gap Year Text 4 Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management。 In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago。 In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work—such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep—that affect the lives of all Americans。 Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts。 As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire? “It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says。” We need to take a magnifying glass to that。 Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?” Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say。 For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive。 Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change—how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires。 While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation。 “The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says。 Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be。 Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited。” At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado。 But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says。 “We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says。 “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today。” More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they 。 [A] exhausted unprecedented management efforts [B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget [C] severely damaged the ecology of western states [D] caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure [答案][B] consumed a record-high percentage of budget Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to 。 [A] raise more funds for fire-prone areas [B] avoid the redirection of federal money [C] find wildfire-free parts of the landscape [D] guarantee safer spending of public funds [答案][D] guarantee safer spending of public funds While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that 。 [A] public debates have not settled yet [B] fire-fighting conditions are improving [C] other factors should not be overlooked [D] a shift in the view of fire has taken place [答案][C] other factors should not be overlooked The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to 。 [A] discover the fundamental makeup of nature [B] explore the mechanism of the human systems [C] maximize the role of landscape in human life [D] understand the interrelations of man and nature [答案][D] understand the interrelations of man and nature Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should 。 [A] do away with [B] come to terms with [C] pay a price for [D] keep away from [答案][B] come to terms with Part B Directions: Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column。 There are two extra choices in the right column。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET。 (10 points) The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump。 “We don’t make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line。 Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing。 But there is also a different way to look at the data。 Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few。 Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years。 Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay。 For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers—and upward pressure on wages。 “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming [into the workforce], but they’ve been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr。 Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture。 At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year。 Mr。 Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years。 At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he’s trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors。 It’s his first week on the job。 Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering。 “I love working with tools。 I love creating。” he says。 But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory。 Millennials “remember their father and mother both were laid off。 They blame it on the manufacturing recession,” says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan。 These concerns aren’t misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013。 When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades。 Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels。 “The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College。 “There’re enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don’t need to have much skill。 It’s that gap in between, and that’s where the problem is。 ” Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance。 While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility。 “Overtime is not attractive to this generation。 They really want to live their lives,” she says。   [A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools。 41。 Jay Deuwell [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill。 42。 Jason Stenquist [C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore。 43。 Birgit Klohs [D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers。 44。 Rob Spohr [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition。 45.Julie Parks [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing。   [G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents。 [答案] 41 [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition。       42 [A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools。           43 [G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents。 44 [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill 45 [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing Section III Translation 46.Directions: Translate the following text into Chinese。 Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。 (15 points) My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing。 Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course。 However, during that course I realized I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me。 Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities。 But, to be honest, I said it , because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream—I knew that no one could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing。 This is when I noticed the course “Fashion Media & Promotion。”[参考译文] 我一直梦想着能找到一个结合时尚与出版的工作。中学毕业前两年,我学习了缝纫设计课程,认为自己继而能够学习时尚设计。然而,期间,发现自己在该领域不够优秀,不足以在未来与其他富有创造力的人竞争。因此,得出结论:这条道路不适合我。在申请大学之前,我告诉大家自己会选择新闻专业,因为写作一直都是我最喜欢的事情之一。但是,说实话,当时这样说,是因为我认为时尚于我而言就是个梦想。我知道完全没有人相信我会进入时尚这一行。因此,我决定去寻找一些课程,既与时尚相关、又涉及写作。就在这时,我注意到了《时尚媒体与营销》这门课程。 Section IV Writing Part A Directions: Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students。 Write a reply to 1) accept the invitation, and 2) introduce the key points of your presentation You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET。 Don’t use your own name, use “LiMing” instead。 Don’t write your address。 (10 points) 47、 [参考范文] Dear Professor Williams, I felt much honored when I received your invitation to give a presentation about Chinese culture to the international students of your college。 I would much like to do this job。 So I am writing to tell you something about the presentation to be given。 The focus of my presentation will be Chinese traditional festivals, such as the Spring Festival and the Mid-autumn Day。 In the speech, I will introduce the origin and conventions of these festivals。 For example, the Mid-Autumn Day, falling on the 15th of August in the Chinese lunar calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday for family members and loved ones to gather together。 In addition to enjoying the glorious full moon on this day, Chinese people will also eat festival-moon cakes, recite ancient Chinese poems as well as guess lantern riddles。 I believe these knowledge will help the foreign students obtain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture。 I am really looking forward to sharing these with all of the international students。 Yours sincerely, Li Ming Part B Directions: You should write about 150 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。 (15 points) [参考范文] Reflected in the chart given above are the respective changes in the numbers of museums and their visitors in China from the year 2013 to 2015。 It can be clearly seen that the number of museums was on a continuous rise from 6378 to 7811 in the two years, up more than 22%, and so did that of the visitors, with an increase of nearly 13% from 4165 to 4692。 What might account for the notable growths? Reasons are many, but the most important one, as far as I am concerned, is that with the boom of Chinese economy in recent years, our government has been placing an increasingly high value on the inheritance of traditional culture, which connects modern people with the historical past, allowing them to acquire a cultural and historical identity。 What’s more, more attention is paid to tour Chinese traditional culture since the Chinese have improved living standards。 With the development of China, the increasing trend is bound to continue for some time in the future。 From my perspective, it is a positive trend and should be encouraged, for it is not only beneficial for the preservation and rejuvenation of our ancestral heritages but also conducive to the cultural diversity of the world。[详情]

2017考研英语二翻译真题参考译文及解析
2017考研英语二翻译真题参考译文及解析

  2017年考研英语考试已经结束,文都教育给大家提供了的2017考研英语(二)真题翻译答案解析,供广大考生参考: [原文题目] My Dream My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing。 Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course。 However, during that course I realized that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me。 Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities。 But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! [参考译文] 我的梦想 我的梦想一直是在时装设计和出版界之间找寻一个工作。在我中学毕业的两年前,我参加了一个缝纫和设计课程,原以为我能再继续参加一个时装设计的课程。然而,就在这个课程上,我意识到,将来在这个领域,我是无法和那些富于创新精神的精英们相媲美的。于是,我断定到这条路走不通。在申请上大学之前,我和所有人都讲,我想学新闻学,因为,写作曾经是,现在也是我最喜欢的活动之一。但是,说实话,我之所以这样说,是因为我以为从事时装设计不过是一个梦想,我也知道,除了我之外,没有人能想象出我会从事时装设计的工作。 [翻译解析] My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing。 参考译文:我的梦想一直是在时装设计和出版界之间找寻一个工作。 句子分析:这个句子是简单句,句子主干是My dream has always been to work,后面的部分是状语。难点的地方在于状语部分somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing, 这里somewhere不需要翻译出来避免后面的介词短语重复,抽象理解为在时尚设计和出版界之间找寻一个工作。 Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course。 参考译文:在我中学毕业的两年前,我参加了一个缝纫和设计课程,原以为我能再继续参加一个时装设计的课程。 句子分析:句子主干为I took a sewing and design course 后面是现在分词短语thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course作伴随状语。 However, during that course I realized that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me。 参考译文:然而,就在这个课程上,我意识到,将来在这个领域,我是无法和那些富于创新精神的精英们相媲美的。于是,我断定到这条路走不通。 句子分析:句子结构是i realized +that 引导的宾语从句,so引导的结果状语从句,结果状语从句中that引导宾语从句。第一个宾语从句中主干是I was not good enough in this area,其后有动词不定式短语做目的状语。 Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities。 参考译文:在申请上大学之前,我和所有人都讲,我想学新闻学,因为,写作曾经是,现在也是我最喜欢的活动之一。 句子分析:句子结构为i told everyone +that引导的宾语从句,because引导的状语从句。 But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! 参考译文:但是,说实话,我之所以这样说,是因为我以为从事时装设计不过是一个梦想,我也知道,除了我之外,没有人能想象出我会从事时装设计的工作 句子分析:本句主句为i said it ,其后又because 引导原因状语从句,原因状语从句中that 引导了宾语从句。破折号之后的句子结构为I know +that引导的宾语从句。 总体来说,今年英语二翻译不论是从句式还是从词汇方面都比往年要简单。赶快来对下答案吧![详情]

2017考研英语二阅读真题及答案解析
2017考研英语二阅读真题及答案解析

  来源:有道考研/@建昆老师 As wildfires challenge California, the causes go beyond climate A SHIFT IN THOUGHT Wildfire season has become longer and more intense lately。 But beyond addressing climate change, some researchers call for a paradigm shift to address the various human factors relating to prevention and safety。 By Jessica Mendoza, Staff writer JULY 1, 2016 AZUSA, CALIF。 — On a chain-link fence along Route 39 hangs a homemade poster, peppered with hearts, thanking firefighters and police。 The sign, one of a handful scattered across town, salutes efforts to battle the San Gabriel Complex fire, twin blazes that had erupted on June 20 in the mountains of Angeles National Forest just to the north of the city。 Within a day of igniting, the fire had burned through nearly 5,000 acres and forced hundreds to evacuate。 Nearly a week passed before the US Forest Service and local and state authorities managed to contain even half of the inferno。 Recommended: Could you be a Hotshot? Take our quiz! “Three days in, you could still see the flames,” says Jasmine Perez, a teacher’s assistant and resident of Azusa, which sits northeast of Los Angeles。 And because of the smoke, she adds, “In the mornings, it kind of looked like nighttime still。” The San Gabriel Complex was one of 12 large fires that about 4,000 firefighters were battling across California as of Thursday。 Such numbers so early in the fire season are a testament to the growing frequency and intensity of wildfires in the western US, fire officials say – a shift that many experts say is likely intertwined with climate change and its associated consequences, such as drought。 But climate, however critical, is only part of the problem, scientists say。 A growing body of evidence suggests that other human activity and policy have at least as much impact on wildfires as climate change。 To effectively address a longer and more intense wildfire season – and ensure the safety of residents in fire-prone areas – both environmental and human factors have to be taken into account in more holistic ways, they say。 That means more than just sweeping dry brush off the front porch。 Though such steps are an important part of the process, officials and researchers alike are calling for a comprehensive approach to wildfires: one that incorporates fire safety and behavior in key policy decisions and legislation。 Such an effort would also recognize that fire can be helpful as well as harmful and embrace fire’s place in human society。 “We need not just a policy shift but also a cultural shift in the dialogue around fires in our landscape and how to manage them,” says Jennifer Balch, director of Earth Lab and a professor of geography at the University of Colorado in Boulder。 “Fire is not something we can remove。 A large majority of the country is living in fire-prone areas。 How do we live with wildfire? How do we manage?” “More and more researchers are arguing that anthropogenic influences are really important [to understanding wildfires],” adds Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management and a professor at the College of Natural Resources at the University of California, Berkeley。 “By leaving them out we’re missing a critical piece of the solution。” Changing attitudes on fire 选取部分: Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, Professor Moritz and others say。 In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires – nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago。 In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency’s other work – such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep – that affect the lives of all Americans。 Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies, such as the Department of Housing and Urban Development, are going into construction in fire-prone districts。 As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire? “It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says。 “We need to take a magnifying glass to that。 Like, ‘Wait a minute, is this OK?’ Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?” Such a pivot would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say。 For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive。 Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change – how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases (including human carbon emissions) is leading to conditions that exacerbate fires。 While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation。 “The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says。 Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be。 Our perception of the problem and perception of what the solution is [becomes] very limited。” At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado。 But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says。 “We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says。 “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection [with fire] today。” Role for citizens 。。。 and for policy After nearly 30 years in the state fire service, Janet Upton understands the value of that connection。 During her early days with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire), veterans would tell war stories of huge fires that happened once in a career, she recalls。 “But in my generation, those of us who’ve come up through the ‘80s, ’90s, 2000s … we feel like we don’t have the license to use the word ‘unprecedented’ any more。 We’ve seen it all in the last few years,” she says。 “I’ve probably had 15 once-in-a-career fires。” And people caused most of them, Ms。 Upton says。 About 90 percent of all fires in California can be traced to human activity, whether it’s a stove left on or a campfire left burning。 Which is why public education has been Upton’s main goal since 2008, when then-Gov。 Arnold Schwarzenegger appointed her Cal Fire’s deputy communications director。 The department has since made strides, playing a major role in launching state and nationalcampaigns that underscore the public’s role in fire safety。 But people’s tendency to put danger out of their minds until it’s too late continues to pose serious challenges, Upton says。 “This is going to sound cold。 But if someone chooses to live in a rural area and continues to not be responsive to [fire-safety] education, sadly, the worst punishment they’re going to get is they’re going to lose their home in a fire,” she says。 A paradigm shift, some researchers hope, can address that gap between education and action。 Environmental policy specialist Ray Rasker, for instance, envisions whole communities designed around the concept of fire safety, and a slate of fire-prevention policies at the local, state, and national level。 “What we’re telling the public now is, ‘Reduce the risk of fires – if you so choose。’ Imagine if we tried driving our cars like that,” says Dr。 Rasker, who is also executive director of Headwaters Economics, a nonprofit research firm based in Bozeman, Mont。 “Why not use regulations, building codes, and subdivision design standards, development codes and ordinances that say, ‘Look if you’re going to build there, there are certain conditions you have to meet first’?” Some places are already taking steps。 San Diego’s municipal code, for instance, requires property owners to maintain landscape and vegetation standards – or face a penalty equivalent to the cost of hiring a private contractor to do so。 Austin, Texas, has set aside close to 30 percent of city land as conservation areas, curbing the number of new structures that can be built within the fire-prone “wildland-urban interface” (WUI) – the space between unoccupied natural land and human developments。 Flagstaff, Ariz。, Boulder, Colo。, and Santa Fe, N.M。, have all enacted similar policies。 But the need for action continues to grow。 As bad as wildfires have been in recent years, research shows they’re likely to get worse as the US population increases and people build more homes in the WUI, more than 80 percent of which remain undeveloped。 “We keep building more and more homes in harm’s way,” Rasker notes。 “Unless we get a handle on development, we’re really not addressing the problem。” Mind-set matters, too – for everyone, says Upton at Cal Fire。 “It’s a mitigation issue。 You can take the lens we’re looking at [in California] and take it to Tornado Alley or the Eastern Seaboard,” she says。 In the end, “it’s about informing yourself as a member of the public or a policymaker。 How can you do something comprehensive?”[详情]

2017年考研初试英语一真题
2017年考研初试英语一真题

  来源:有道考研/建昆老师 Section I use of English 完形填空 Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding “yes!” Besides helping you feel close and connected to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a host of health benefits to your body and mind。 Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you avoid getting sick this winter。 In a recent study involving over 400 healthy adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs on the participants‘ susceptibility to developing the common cold after being exposed to the virus。 People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come down with a cold, and the researchers calculated that the stress-buffering effects of hugging explained about32 percent of that beneficial effect。 Even among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe symptoms。 “Hugging protects people who are under stress from the increased risk for colds that‘s usually associated with stress,” notes study lead author Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania。 Hugging “is a marker of intimacy and helps generate the feeling that others are there to help in the face of adversity。” Some experts attribute the stress-reducing, health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called “the bonding hormone” because it promotes attachment in relationships, including between mothers and their newborn babies。 Oxytocin is made primarily in the hypothalamus in the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream through the pituitary gland。 But some of it remains in the brain, where it influences mood, behavior and physiology。 A。 besides B。 unlike C。 throughout D。 despite A。 equal B。 restricted C。 connected D。 inferior A。 view   B。 host   C。 lesson   D。 choice A。 avoid   B.forget   C。 recall     D。 keep A。 collecting B。 affecting C。 guiding D。 involving A 。 on     B。 in     C。 at       D。 of A。 devoted B。 attracted C。 lost     D。 exposed A。 along   B。 across   C。 down   D。 out A。 imagined B。 denied   C。 doubted D。 calculated A。 served B。 restored C。 explained D。 required A。 thus   B。 still C。 rather D。 even A.defeats B。 symptoms C。 errors D。 tests A。 highlighted B。 increased C。 controlled D。 minimized A。 presented B。 equipped C。 associated D。 compared 15.A。 assess B。 generate C。 moderate D。 record 15.A。 in the name of B。 in the form of C。 in the face of D。 in the way of 17.A。 attribute B。 commit C。 transfer D。 return 18.A。 unless B。 because C。 though D。 until 19.A。 remains B。 emerges C。 vanishes D。 decreases 20.A。 experiences B。 combines C。 justifies D。 influences Section II Reading Comprehension Text1 First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S。 airports with increasingly massive security lines。 Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety。 The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why。 But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process。 And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans‘ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating。 Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried。 Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago‘s O’Hare International。 It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious。 Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line。 Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes。 Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this。 There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program。 PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA。 Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes。 This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved。 TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck。 It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks。 Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck‘s fatal flaw。 Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level。 But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways。 The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines。 It is long past time to make the program work。 The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804 is mentioned to [A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks。 [B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide。 [C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S。 airports。 [D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection。 Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports? [A] New restrictions on carry-on bags。 [B] The declining efficiency of the TSA。 [C] An increase in the number of travellers。 [D] Frequent unexpected secret checks。 The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para。 5) is closet in meaning to [A] quieter。 [B] cheaper。 [C] wider。 [D] faster。 One problem with the PreCheck program is [A] a dramatic reduction of its scale。 [B] its wrongly-directed implementation。 [C] the government’s reluctance to back it。 [D] an unreasonable price for enrollment。 Which of the following would be the best for the text? [A] Less Screening for More Safety [B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution [C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines [D] Underused PreCheck Lanes B explains Americans’ tolerance of current security worldwide。 C an increase in the number of travelers D faster D an unreasonable price for enrollment A less Screening for More Safety Text2 “The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii‘s last reigning monarch, in 1897。 Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society。 Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today。 Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos。 At issue is the TMT‘s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens。 But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes。 Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea‘s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity。 Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new。 A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation。 Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers。 In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world。 They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea‘s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands’ inhabitants。 Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today。 Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization。 The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii‘s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens。 Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going。 Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes。 The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea。 The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact。 To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state。 There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars。 Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates [A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy。 [B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society。 [C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times。 [D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time。 Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to [A] its geographical features。 [B] its protective surroundings。 [C] its religious implications。 [D] its existing infrastructure。 The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because [A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life。 [B] it reminds them of a humiliating history。 [C] their culture will lose a chance of revival。 [D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea。 It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy [A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians。 [B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world。 [C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture。 [D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility。 The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of [A] severe criticism。 [B] passive acceptance。 [C] slight hesitancy。 [D] full approval。 the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaii society its geographical features 28.it reminds them of humiliating history 29.may uncover the origin of Hawaii culture 30.passive acceptance Text 3 Robert F.Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile。” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to。 The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century。 Many argue that it is a flawed concept。 It measures things that do not matter and miss things that do。 By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record how unemployment and high growth figures。 If everything was going so so well, then why did over 17million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects? A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question。 Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performances in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvement for its citizens。 Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing。 While all these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes。 Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline。 Yet this isn’t the case with all countries。 Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and the environment。 This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different。 So, what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough。 It does not include important factors such as environmental equality or education outcomes-all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being。 The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for well-being and for growth。 But policymaker who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress。 Robert F。 Kennedy is cited because he [A]praised the UK for its GDP。 [B]identified GDP with happiness。 [C]misinterpreted the role of GDP。 [D]had a low opinion of GDP。 It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that [A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern。 [B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy。 [C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK。 [D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP。 Which of the following is true about the recent annual study? [A]It excludes GDP as an indicator。 [B]It is sponsored by 163 countries。 [C]Its criteria are questionable。 [D]Its results are enlightening。 In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that [A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom。 [B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline。 [C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP。 [D]it requires caution to handle economic issues。 Which of the following is the best for the text? [A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson [B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health [C] Robert F。 Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP [D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being D had a low opinion of GDP。 C GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK。 D It results are enlightening。 C It is essential to consider factors beyond GDP。 A High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, A UK Lesson。 Text 4 In a rare unanimous ruling the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell。 But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, while included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government。 The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr.McDonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts”, or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties。 Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found。 The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty”。 But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation。 Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an an“official act”。 The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal。 Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution for bribery。 “The basic compact underlying representative government, wrote Chief Justice John Robert for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act in their concerns。” But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government。 Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift。 This type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s sources of wealth。 Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption。 But it is not always corruption Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy。 If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society--that all are equal in treatment by government-is undermined。 Good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual。 The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism。 The underlined sentence(Para.1)most probably shows that the court avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties。 made no compromise in convicting McDonnell。 was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct。 refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics。 According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves Concrete returns for gift-giver。 Sizable gains in the form of gifts。 Leaking secrets intentionally。 D.breaking contracts officially。 The court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials are A 。 Allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters。 Qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues。 Justified in addressing the needs of their constituents。 Exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism。 Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needs to Awaken the conscience of officials。 Guarantee fair play in official access。 Allow for certain kinds of lobbying。 Inspire hopes in average people。 The author’s attitude towards the court’s ruling is Sarcastic Tolerant Skeptical D.supportive C was contemptuous of McDonell’s conduct A concrete returns for the give-givers A allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters B guarantee fair play in official access D supportive Part B F Dickens was born in Portsmactch, on Englands… E Soon after his father’s release from prison… A The first published sketch, “A Dinner at Popular Walk”… C Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared a publishing firm… G After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world… Part C Translation David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a comprehensive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations。 Alongside that, many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages。 If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish, Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other languages such as Japanese, French and German, spreads。 Section III Writing Directions: You are to write an email to James Cook, a newly-arrived Australia professor, recommending some tourist attraction in your city。 Please give reason for your recommendation。 You should write nearly on the ANSWER SHEET。 Do not sign your own name at the end of the email 。use “Li Ming” instead。 Do not write the address。 (10 points) Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures。 In your essay, you should 1) describe the pictures briefly。 2) interpret the meaning, and 3) give your comments。 You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。 (20 points) [详情]

陈正康2017考研英语(一)大作文范文
陈正康2017考研英语(一)大作文范文

  陈正康2017考研英语(一)大作文范文 52.Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures。 In y essay。 You should 1) describe the pictures briefly。 2) interpret the meaning,and 3) give your comments。 You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。 (20 points) 左边一副图一个男孩放了好多书,没有读;右边一个男孩正在读书,针对本题,按照陈正康老师教的方法,三段式构思: 简要描述-一人在空想,一人在行动! 分析引申义-行动的重要性 观点建议-提倡行动 What is clearly presented  in the picture is two opposite behaviors。 In the first picture ,there are a lot of books besides a boy, but he doesn’t read any book at all。 On the contrary,, the second boy is making a plan of reading and carrying it out。 Nothing can be more far-reaching and thought-provoking than this drawing! Apparently ,the implication of the given picture can be interpreted with regard to the significance of taking actions.No one can deny the fact that taking actions is extremely essential to achieve your goals。 Only by putting your dream into action, can you really realize it。 If you never take actions, you will never have a chance to win。 Just as an old Chinese saying goes: “The journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step。” The more actions we take, the more likely we are to accumulate experience, master skills and get close to our destination。 To further demonstrate the importance of taking actions, I would like to take a famous fable as a case in point: the Foolish Old Man who dreamed of removing the mountain in front of his gate began with carrying away small stones and finally realized his dream。 Consequently, I believe, on the one hand, our government and the media should lose no opportunity to publicize the importance of taking actions。 On the other hand, in our daily life, more than just thinking of something, we have to put it into action。 Only by doing so, can we achieve our objectives and realize our dream。[详情]

2017考研初试英语一阅读真题及答案
2017考研初试英语一阅读真题及答案

  来自:有道考神版建昆老师 Text 1 First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S。 airports with increasingly massive security lines。 Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety。 The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why。 But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process。 And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans‘ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating。 Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried。 Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago‘s O’Hare International。 It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious。 Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line。 Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes。 Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this。 There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program。 PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA。 Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes。 This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved。 TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck。 It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks。 Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck‘s fatal flaw。 Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level。 But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways。 The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines。 It is long past time to make the program work。 21。 The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804 is mentioned to [A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks。 [B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide。 [C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S。 airports。 [D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection。 22。 Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports? [A] New restrictions on carry-on bags。 [B] The declining efficiency of the TSA。 [C] An increase in the number of travellers。 [D] Frequent unexpected secret checks。 23。 The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para。 5) is closet in meaning to [A] quieter。 [B] cheaper。 [C] wider。 [D] faster。 24。 One problem with the PreCheck program is [A] a dramatic reduction of its scale。 [B] its wrongly-directed implementation。 [C] the government’s reluctance to back it。 [D] an unreasonable price for enrollment。 25。 Which of the following would be the best  for the text? [A] Less Screening for More Safety [B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution [C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines [D] Underused PreCheck Lanes 答案:21-25 CCADC 第二篇讲夏威夷那篇 Text 2 “The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii‘s last reigning monarch, in 1897。 Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society。 Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today。 Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos。 At issue is the TMT‘s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens。 But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes。 Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea‘s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity。 Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new。 A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation。 Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers。 In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world。 They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea‘s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands’ inhabitants。 Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today。 Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization。 The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii‘s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens。 Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going。 Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes。 The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea。 The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact。 To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state。 There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars。 26。 Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates [A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy。 [B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society。 [C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times。 [D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time。 27。 Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to [A] its geographical features。 [B] its protective surroundings。 [C] its religious implications。 [D] its existing infrastructure。 28。 The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because [A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life。 [B] it reminds them of a humiliating history。 [C] their culture will lose a chance of revival。 [D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea。 29。 It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy   [A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians。 [B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world。 [C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture。 [D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility。 30。 The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of [A] severe criticism。 [B] passive acceptance。 [C] slight hesitancy。 [D] full approval。 答案:26-30 ABBAD 第三篇英国脱欧GDP增长不能给人们带来幸福。。。 Text 3 Robert F。 Kennedy once said that a country‘s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile。” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to。 The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century。 Many argue that it is a flawed concept。 It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do。 By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures。 If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects? A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question。 Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens。 Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing。 While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes。 Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline。 Yet this isn’t the case with all countries。 Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and environment。 This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different。 So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough。 It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person‘s sense of well-being。 The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth。 But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress。 31。 Robert F。 Kennedy is cited because he [A]praised the UK for its GDP。 [B]identified GDP with happiness。 [C]misinterpreted the role of GDP。 [D]had a low opinion of GDP。 32。 It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that [A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern。 [B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy。 [C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK。 [D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP。 33。 Which of the following is true about the recent annual study? [A]It excludes GDP as an indicator。 [B]It is sponsored by 163 countries。 [C]Its criteria are questionable。 [D]Its results are enlightening。 34。 In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that [A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom。 [B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline。 [C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP。 [D]it requires caution to handle economic issues。 35。 Which of the following is the best  for the text? [A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson [B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health [C] Robert F。 Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP [D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being[详情]

2017考研英语一整体难度比去年简单
2017考研英语一整体难度比去年简单

  田静:各位同学大家好!欢迎大家来到新东方在线,我是考研语法老师田静,今天非常荣幸站在这里分享2017年考研真题解析。 今天就是2017年考研如火如荼的进行,很多同学可能觉得非常疲惫,2018年考研的同学非常想了解今年英语情况怎么样,明年趋势如何。我们给大家分析一下这些问题。 首先说一下题的难度问题,看一下英语1,说一个好消息就是今年真题难度跟去年一样,相对来讲比较简单。所以连续两年都比较简单,因此对于去年和今年考生来说是一个好消息。如果硬要比较一下今年和去年的英语1真题如果比难度高下的话相对来讲今年真题更简单一点。 但是只不过阅读的第四篇文章难一点,如此之外完形,新题型,新题型讲的狄更斯的生平,这个比较容易拿到分数。说到翻译,和去年难度持平,阅读当中前三篇非常简单,第四篇章难度比较高,包含很多长难句。今年大家比较容易拿到分数。 关于具体题目内容,英语阅读讲之前先分享一下,大家会发现如果大家比较养成阅读英语的习惯,大家平时有关注事实政治的习惯,国际大事对于考研英语比较有帮助。大部分文章和事实政治相关。第一篇文章讲美国机场安检,最近有去过美国的同学会发现美国机场安检队伍越来越长、人越来越多,大家还是会耐心等待。为什么呢? 两点原因,第一有恐怖袭击事件,这个事情发生让大家都比较恐惧,大家耐心的安检是必要的。 第二随着人民生活水平提高大家坐飞机更多一些,出行人更多,安检队伍更长了。 那怎么解决呢?提出这样一个方案,什么计划呢?在机场安检之前先进行提前一步的检查,比如很多资历背景比较好的人,比如我这种背景比较好的人由于各方面条件比较好,在这个项目当中占据优势,可以很快通过安检。但是这个项目要收费,每五年收取85美元,大家对收费比较有争议,需要进一步商议。 第一篇文章是关于这样的实事。 第二篇讲夏威夷,一个山顶上安装望远镜,在一个群岛安装望远镜,按一个这样比较能够清楚的看到星空。安这个挺好但是当地人不同意。夏威夷当地住户比较多,他们一般觉得山顶是通往神的路,感觉天路的感觉,如果你装了一个望远景,阻断了通往天堂的路。 科学家说了安这个也是为了帮助大家通往天堂。最终科学家进行了妥协,等到旧的望远镜废了我们再安装新的。 这两篇文章比较简单。第三篇文章也简单,讲的关于脱欧的问题,之前很多老师押中了这个题目。今年发生的实事当中英国脱欧还是非常有名,大家关心一点对考试都非常有帮助。用英国脱欧做了一个例子,最主要的话题是讨论GDP,有人说过GDP是衡量一个国家水平的标志。很多人反驳并不是这样的,GDP不能衡量一切,不能代表人们的幸福感,以英国为例英国GDP是全欧洲最高的,失业率低,经济发展状况非常好。仍然1700万英国人选择脱欧。脱欧之后也觉得自己傻了。 为什么那么多人在GDP非常好的情况下不觉得自己幸福呢?除了GDP还有很多标准决定人们的幸福。像教育、医疗。所以他们在这方面投资。 以上三篇文章在真题都非常简单的。只要做好准备这三篇非常容易拿高分。[详情]

2017年考研英语一作文解析及范文
2017年考研英语一作文解析及范文

  来源:有道考神版,陈曲Frank老师 要求:You are to write an email to James Cook,a newly-arrived Australia professor,recommending some tourist attraction in your city 。Please give reason for your recommendation。 You should write nearly on the answer/sheet。 Dot not sign your own name at the end of the email 。use “li ming”instead Do not write the address。 范文: Dear James, It has been a long time before we last met。 How are you doing? I am writing this letter for the purpose of inviting you to my hometown Beijing for a visit。 The reasons for my recommendation areas follows。 To begin with, Beijing is an ancient city with a long history。 Itwas the capital of China for several dynasties over a long period and tends to playan extremely important role in education, culture and politics。 Furthermore, aswe exist in a dynamic world with various new changes, Beijing now evolves intoa more beautiful city。 There are many places of interests here in Beijing, suchas the Summer Palace, the Imperial Palace and the Great Wall。 If you are interested, please feel freeto contact me at your earliest convenience。 Yours sincerely Li Ming 2017年考研英语一大作文题目 要求:Write an essay of 160-200 words  based on the following pictures。 In the essay。 You should 1) describe the pictures briefly。 2) interpret the meaning,and 3) give your comments。 You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。 范文: This set of pictures capture two vivid but quite different scenes.In one picture, a man is lying on the armchair, pointing to the bookshelf full of books in front of him。 He is proudly bragging about the number of his books.By stark contrast, another man is sitting at his desk with a book open and a few books besides him。 He wants to read twenty books this year。 The major theme is humorously reflected in the subtitle: “I have books” and “I read books”。 In fact, the seemingly simple cartoons subtly disclose a prevailing phenomenon。 Nowadays, fewer people read books and more people have books。 Reading is of utmost importance for one’s life。 Firstly, a good book is our faithful friend。 Reading can increase our contentment when we are cheerful and happy,and can lessen our pain when we are sad or lonely。 Secondly, reading can help people to relax and unwind。 Few of us can travel far from home, but all of us can savor a wide range of experiences through reading。 Besides, reading can also increase our knowledge and skills, broaden our horizons and make us wise。 To advocate the importance of reading books, the mass media should be held accountable。 They should make relevant public campaign to promote the idea that read more books rather than have books。 As the saying goes, “action speaks louder than words”。 By 有道考研[详情]

2017年考研英语一小作文点评及范文
2017年考研英语一小作文点评及范文

  今年英语一的小作文不出预料,再一次考查到了推荐信。在英语一的考试当中,推荐信已经考查过两年了。例如我们英语一在2011年就考查过向你的朋友推荐一部电影。具体题目要求是Write a letter to a friend of yours to1) recommend one of your favorite movies and;2) give reasons for your recommendation。 2015年考察的是you are going to hold a club reading session。 Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.You should state reasons for your recommendation。 而今年的作文题目要求给新来的澳大利亚国籍教授James Cook介绍你城市的tourist attraction。因此,考生不用惊慌只要把2011年或2015年的小作文,主要是推荐原因部分,稍作修改即可成文。这就启发我们2018届的同学们要高度重视历年真题,因为考过的话题或是书信类型会反复考查。 那么今年的作文具体该如何来写呢?今年考题的Direction要求向新来的James Cook教授推荐旅游景点。根据题目的要求,我们可以判断本文为公务信函,语域为正式语域,即不能出现缩写、省略问句和和口语表达。 称呼: Dear Prof。 James Cook, 注意称呼中,Prof后面的句点不能丢,称呼最后的逗号号不可丢,也不能写成冒号。当然如果称呼不写Prof。 写成Mr。 James Cook 也是可以的。 正文 第一段:写作内容需涵盖两点:1:欢迎Cook 教授来中国;2:写信目的,表明推荐。 用到了这样的表达Welcome to China。 I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot- Harbin, which is an old northern city of China。 第二段: 写作内容为推荐原因。可以从三个角度来考虑:美景、美食和热情的人们。用到了这样的表达:I think you must like it for the reasons as follows。 To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on。 In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street。 Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China。 第三段:再次强调写信目的。Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you。 I am sure you will enjoy it。 最后,表达祝福 Best wishes for you! 落款: Yours sincerely, 特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢; 签名: Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。 落款和前面左、右对齐都可以。 参考范文: Dear Prof。 James Cook, Welcome to China。 I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot—Harbin, which is an old northern city of China。 I think you must like it for the reasons as follows。 To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on。 In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street。 Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China。 Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you。 I am sure you will enjoy it。 Best wishes for you! Yours sincerely, Li Ming[详情]

2017考研英语(二)大作文解析
2017考研英语(二)大作文解析

  不负众望,2017考研终于在大家的“期待”与“拒绝”中到来,有些考生已经在不知不觉中度过了艰难困苦的耗时一年的考前复习,更有其他大牛已经在考研复习时间上耗费了更久。刚刚走下考场各位考生先稍事休息。为了让各位考生对2017考研英语二真题有个更加详细的理解,接下来,文都教育的老师们就来为各位考生送上热乎乎的考研英语二真题大作文部分的套路分析。 首先,在图表呈现上:不同于之前英语二大作文的考查惯性,终于不负众望的折线图跃然卷上。英语二大作文的主题是围绕2013-2015年博物馆的数量及参观博物馆的访客数量展开。此篇写作难度较往年并未有大浮动的变动,在图表呈现上,以动态折线图的形式呈现,且动态趋势也是较为简单的单趋势上升。因此,考生只要能够对图表呈现的字幕及图例正确写出,再搭配考前大作文模块复习的句子就可以写出较为符合要求的大作文。 其次,在内容考查上:此次出题人在横纵坐标的选择上也并未为难考生。横坐标仍然按照之前的惯例,以时间轴为横轴,数值轴为纵轴。因此,考生需要将之前背过的常用表达熟记于心,之后再跃然纸上即可。例如,最常使用的“the number of 。。。”,“from。。。to。。。”,“during the period of xx years to time2”及常见的上升(increase,rise,ascend,soar,surge,go up,climb,mount等),下降(decrease,fall,drop,descend,decline,reduce,slump,lessen 等)的词汇表述。 最后,在主题的选取上,英语二大作文的主题扔未跳出与人们日常生活相关的话题。仔细对比,不难发现“博物馆及博物馆参观人数的变化”与16年“大学生旅行目的的调查”有相似之处。纵容在图表呈现上不同与往年,但在第二段原因展开时,考生可以针对被试群体及所呈现的趋势变化进行相关性分析。同时再借用第二段展开时常见的与精神层面相关的原因及重要性相关的句式,一篇符合题目要求的英语二大作文就可以呈现出来了。[详情]

2017考研英语(一)阅读解析
2017考研英语(一)阅读解析

  各位同学大家好!欢迎大家来到新东方在线。同学们,我估计这个时候能听我给大家做直播的有两类人,一类打算明年考试的,另外一类刚刚走出考场。我四点半交卷离开考场了。感觉特别潇洒。这次考研又落下帷幕,我刚刚从考场赶回新东方演播室,和大家一起聊一聊考试的内容。 我知道各位最关心的是考试答案,别着急,在我跟大家直播结束之后,老师会把我在考场里答的阅读理解部分凭借记忆记下来的答案说给大家。这部分内容在17:01的时候在微博上发了一下。 这次考试难度不是有明显提升,还算简单,但是作文话题道长会和大家来聊,有书读读和读书的事,以及写一封电子邮件给一位教授。 第一篇文章讲的是美国安检的事,考研英语1,英语2的同学赶紧吃饭去。以前两个小时变成了三个小时。美国航空公司建议人们提前三个小时到达机场。因为美国安检比原来更加严格,步骤比以前更长了。美国安检有机器,能看到你身上任何部位的金属。美国安检还得解皮带、脱鞋,安检的地方味道都不是很好。 国内安检在一些角度来讲没有老美那么严格。至少在国内我没有脱过鞋。 文章探讨的是在安检的过程当中,为什么牌越来越长了、人越来越多。给出第一个理由是埃及航空804号航班被恐怖分子袭击之后,使得美国人征集了自己的安检,使得站的排越来越多。 另外一个随着经济的好转与发展,越来越多人出行选择坐飞机,你有钱了更多喜欢坐飞机出行。导致人也多了。 给出一些解决方案,美国安全运输局说给了一个解决方法,这个方法是把一部分表现比较好的人,让他们去搞一个背景记录。但是每五年花85美金。这样的方法不能从根本上解决问题。 文章核心内容讲的是美国机场安检越来越长,给出的原因试着探讨可能出现的解决方案。 这是第一篇文章。 第二篇文章我看到之后差点没乐死。因为讲夏威夷新建一个望远镜。我去年11月份刚刚去夏威夷回来,夏威夷最吸引我的是有最新的太空望远镜,夏威夷达到山最高的在大气层以上,观测视野特别好。美国要在夏威夷建30米大型望远镜,但是遭遇当地人阻碍。说这个地方安装望远镜亵渎了神灵。 作者观点认为早期到达夏威夷的这些人他们仰望星空想知道我从哪里来、我是谁、我要到哪里去,宇宙本质是什么,和这些天文学家一致。 作者认为尽管夏威夷当地文化当中存在着对当地的文化的崇拜,两者最初出发点一回事,都是为了理解我们的宇宙, 这是第二篇文章的内容。[详情]

网友调侃考研“神押题”:答案全在材料里
网友调侃考研“神押题”:答案全在材料里

  12月24日是2017考研初试的第一天。上午11:30政治考完后,照例迎来了各位名师及辅导机构晒押题命中率的时刻。但是今年的押题出现了新画风: 网友晒的截图 新浪小编梳理了下,原来是这样的: 考研党在考前认真学习名师出的预测题时,认真背诵了材料题的答案。没想到在考场上发现,自己背诵的答案变成了题目的材料!于是便出现了网友口中所说的“背过的全在材料里,让你无答案可写”的情况。 对此,微博上众多网友已经进行了吐槽: @管你们有没有备注:见过押题不仅押到题目,还把答案押到材料里的吗? @最初老友人:刷了下微博 发现今年的考研政治是这么个情况:抄抄材料 抄抄题目 再抄抄题目 抄抄材料 @Febrary:选择题没见过,材料题没见过,背过的都在材料里,让你无答案可写。 @等我说完你别急:考研政治考出了小学阅读的感觉 答案从材料中抄 @莉莉莉莉:大家背了我没背,然而大家背的东东都出现在了材料里。然后就比着材料抄喽?虽然乱答一气也不知道对不对,但莫名有点开心,我是不是赚到了[详情]

2017专硕考研人数激增 初试难度下降
2017专硕考研人数激增 初试难度下降

  2016年研究生入学考试,随着十月份在职考试取消,在职研究生考试并入全国统一考试。随着政策导向,今年研究生入学考试人数猛增,也在预料之中。由此,今年学硕与专硕考试有何趋势?跨考教育专硕管综刘京环老师就考试的情况进行如下几项分析: 1.政策导向,考试难度偏简单 两项考试并轨后,考试难度是否会加大?从今年的管综考试整体来看,刘京环老师认为,考试难度偏简单,其中数学逻辑相较2016简单,越来越偏重基础考查,中文写作的小作文较2016难度上浮一点,大作文较简单。 2.初试简单,复试线或小幅上调(5分左右),国家线或上调,复试难度增加 在初试难度降低,报考人数增加的背景下,个别学校可能会调整复试的淘汰率,2016大部分学校是1:1.5,极个别院校是1:2的淘汰率,明年三月份出复试通知存在调高比例的可能性;也有可能复试笔试或者面试的难度增加。在录取方面,根据专业不同,非全日制研究生录取分数线并不一定会比全日制研究生分数线低。 3.专业学位或成为未来报考主流 在十月份在职考试取消,2016的研究生招生普研和专硕的人数比例已经实现1:1,在这两个背景下2017专硕的报考人数得到了增加。在职研究生专业硕士联考并轨,将在一定程度上推动专业学位教育的大发展。对于个别热门学校,竞争压力显著提升。 未来可能将会有越来越多的考生将注意力放到专业硕士学位上来,加上教育部一直在大力扶植专业硕士学位办学招生,因此专业硕士招生人数、办学规模将可能超越当前的学术硕士,成为研究生报考的主流。[详情]

2017考研政治真题时政题目解析
2017考研政治真题时政题目解析

  2017年考研政治时政题题目为15、16题,多选为32、33题,主观题为38题。今年的考查单选题目考查国内的是两岸制度化沟通和协商中断的根本原因和国际部分是中东问题的核心问题。多选考查的是我国建立五大战区以及组建战区联合作战指挥机构的意义以及国外英国脱欧问题,主观题考查知识是“G20”峰会,考查的背景是“中国融入世界”, 通过知识点综合以上分析,今年时政难度趋于稳定、考试题型灵活。 单选15题考查的是两岸制度化沟通和协商谈判机制中断,其根本原因在于没有明确承认“九二共识”及其核心内涵,也就是没有承认一个中国的原则。此题难度较易。单选16题考查的是中东问题的核心问题,此题目难度较大。 多选32题考查的是我国建立五大战区以及组建战区联合作战指挥机构的意义,意义类型的选择题目,积极向上的,都可入选,明显绝对错误和倾向的答案考生可进行排除,32题中的C选项“军事合作”这种明显的偏向性词木,根据中公教育上课所讲的答题技巧,严重偏向的选项可以排除,此题目较容易。多选33题考查的是英国“脱欧”问题,此题目难度较难,考查的是英国脱欧的因素的内容,这需要考生平时关注时政问题,善于思考经济题目,如果考生平时关注不到此类的知识点,利用上课所讲的客观题答题技巧,“始终反对”这种类型的字眼严重偏向,考生可以很快的排除此答案。 主观题38题目背景今年在杭州所召开的“G20”峰会,考查主题为“中国融入世界”,考查知识点的范围趋于历年真题的命题规律,考生可的答题时需双主体进行解答,第一问,中国和世界两个主体,从经济全球化、综合国力的提升、文明的多样性、命运共同体等相关知识点均是正确的。第二问,考生写出我国走的是和平发展道路,独立自主的和平外交政策围绕答均可得分。 通过今年17年考研政治时政题目的难度分析可以得出,时政题目难度是趋于稳定的,时政整体难度一般,按照中公考研政治关于时政选择的技巧考生是可以选择出正确的答案的,主观题所考察的内容相对来说比较容易。[详情]

2017考研政治毛中特部分答案及解析
2017考研政治毛中特部分答案及解析

  2017年12月24日,思想政治理论考试千呼万唤始出来,文都政治老师将为大家带来2017考研政治真题毛中特部分的参考答案及解析,希望能加强大家对考研政治真题——毛中特部分的启发。 5.从中华人民共和国成立到社会主义改造基本完成,是我国从新民主主义到社会主义的过渡时期。这一时期,个体经济向社会主义集体经济过渡的形式是(    ) A.国家资本主义经济   B.私人资本主义经济   C.合作社经济   D.国营经济 答案:C 解析:新民主主义社会的五种经济成分是社会主义性质的国营经济、半社会主义性质的合作社经济、农民和手工业者的个体经济、私人资本主义经济和国家资本主义经济。三种主要的经济成分是社会主义经济、个体经济和资本主义经济。其中两种过渡性质的经济成分是合作社经济和国家资本主义经济。国家资本主义经济是私人资本主义向国营经济的过渡形式的经济;合作社经济是个体经济向集体经济过渡的形式。所以,选项C正确。 6.2016年是“十三五”规划开局之年,也是推进供给侧结构性改革的攻坚之年,推进供给侧结构性改革是适应我国经济发展新常态的重大改革,其根本目的是(   )  A.推进“去产能、去库存、去杠杆、降成本、补短板”  B.提高供给质量满足需要  C.深化价格、财税、金融、社保等领域基础性改革      D.加快政府职能转变 答案:B 解析:当前我国经济发展中有周期性、总量性问题,但是结构性问题最突出,矛盾的主要方面在供给侧。要准确把握基本要求,供给侧结构性改革的根本目的是提高供给质量满足需要,使供给能力更好满足人民日益增长的物质文化需要;主攻方向是减少无效供给,提高供给结构对需求结构的适应性,当前重点是推进“三去一降一补”五大任务;本质属性是深化改革,推进国有企业改革,加快政府职能转变,深化价格、财税、金融、社保等领域基础性改革。所以,选项B正确。 35.(1)如何理解农村贫困人口脱贫是我国全面建成小康社会“最突出的短板”? 解析: ①农村贫困人口是全面建成小康社会最艰巨的任务。消除贫困、改善民生、逐步改善民生、逐步实现共同富裕,是社会主义的本质要求,是我们党的重要使命。②农村贫困人口脱贫,也是保障和改善民生的重要措施。民生是人民幸福之基、社会和谐之本。改善民生是推动社会发展的根本目的,保障和改善是一项长期工作,没有终点站,只有连续不断的新起点。③坚持共享发展,着力增进人民福祉,按照人人参与、人人尽力、人人享有的要求,坚守底线、突出重点、完善制度、引导预期,注重机会公平,保障基本民生,实现全体人民共同迈入全面小康社会。所以说,农村贫困人口脱贫是我国全面建成小康社会“最突出的短板”。 (2)赤溪村脱贫致富之路对当前我国实施精准扶贫、打赢扶贫攻坚战有何启示? 解析:①赤溪村脱贫致富之路,丰富了扶贫脱贫的途径,为进一步实现全面建成小康社会,进一步保障和改善民生提供了有益的探索。②脱贫致富要充分发挥政治优势和制度优势,推进精准扶贫脱贫,创新扶贫工作机制和模式,采取超常规措施,加大扶贫攻坚力度,坚决打赢扶贫攻坚战;扶贫机制要进一步完善兜底措施,在医保、新农合方面给予更多的支持;要脱贫也要致富,产业扶贫至关重要,赤溪村大力发展生态旅游业,这是产业扶贫的体现;要做好教育扶贫,不能让孩子输在起跑线上。移民搬迁也是扶贫攻坚的一种有效方式。②扶贫脱贫要在党的领导下有序的进行,充分发挥党的领导核心作用。③要发挥群众的首创精神,推进扶贫攻坚工程的实施。⑤扶贫攻坚工程的实施是一个循序渐进的过程。 真题解析:毛中特部分着重考察了与今年时政热点和新增考点相结合的内容,小伙伴们只要答出保障和改善民生;共享发展;实施扶贫攻坚工程的措施就可以得到大部分的分数。相信小伙伴们不负所望,一定答的非常好。[详情]

2017年考研初试政治试题答案
2017年考研初试政治试题答案

  新浪教育讯 2017年考研初试在12月24日正式开考了。新浪教育频道第一时间发布考研初试各科真题及权威答案解析。以下为2017年考研初试政治真题答案。【点击查看真题】 一、单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题目要求的,请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。 1. B   2.B   3.D   4.A  5.C  6.A  7.B   8.A   9.B   10.D  11.B  12.B   13.A  14.B  15.D  16.C 二、多项选择题:17~33小题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。 17.BCD     18.BCD    19.AC     20.ABC   21.ABCD 22.ABC    23.ABCD       24.ABCD     25.ABCD    26.ABCD 27.BCD     28.ABD     29.ABCD     30.BCD      31.ABCD 32.ABCD     33.BCD 三、分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料回答问题。将答案写在答题卡指定位置的边框区域内。 34.(1)参考答案: 在实践中,真理既是制约实践的客观尺度,又是实践追求的价值目标之一;而价值则是实践追求的根本目标,同时又是制约实践的主体尺度,真理和价值在实践基础上是辩证统一的。 真理和价值在实践中的辩证统一关系,主要体现在:首先,成功的实践必然是以真理和价值的辩证统一为前提的。任何成功的实践都必然是既遵循真理尺度,又符合价值尺度,并将二者有机地统一起来的结果。其次,价值的形成和实现以坚持真理为前提,而真理又必然是具有价值的。再者,真理和价值在实践和认识活动中是相互制约、相互引导、相互促进的。 坚持真理尺度和价值尺度的辩证统一,要求我们在实践中必须坚持和弘扬科学精神和人文精神。 材料中,人工智能取得了非常大的成就,这体现了人们在实践中遵循真理尺度,另一方面,关于人工智能的风险讨论也很广泛,人工智能的运用甚至带来了一些负面的影响,这说明在遵循真理尺度的同时,也还要符合价值尺度。 (2)实践是人的存在方式,是人与自然分化与统一的基础,实践是人能动的改造世界的物质性活动。辩证唯物主义认为,人是有意识的,人的意识具有能动性。意识的能动作用是人的意识所特有的积极反映世界与改造世界的能力和活动,意识活动具有目的性和计划性。人在认识客观世界、尊重客观规律的同时,还总是根据一定的目的、要求去确定反映什么、不反映什么、怎样反映,表现出主体的选择性。人工智能不会取代人类,因为只有人类才具有创造力和目标,而机器只关注如何解决问题,所以要让人工智能避免犯下错误,关键在人类自己。 唯物辩证法认为,矛盾是普遍存在的,矛盾存在于一切事物的发展过程中,每一事物的发展过程中都存在着自始至终的矛盾运动,即所谓矛盾无处不在,无时不有。矛盾推动事物的发展,而且事物发展的根本原因不在事物的外部,而在于事物内部的矛盾性。事物的内部矛盾是事物发展的内因。内因即内部矛盾是事物存在的基础,是一事物区别于他事物的内在本质,是事物变化的根据,它规定着事物发展的方向,所以它是事物发展的根本原因。人工智能作为新发明不可避免的带来新问题,但同时也会带来新的解决办法,但无论如何,用好人工智能,关键还在使用人工智能的人类自身。 35.(1)参考答案: ①全面建成小康社会是重大战略目标,在“四个全面”战略布局中居于引领地位,是我们党确立的第一个百年目标,而是中华民族伟大复兴的关键一步。 ②改革开放三十多年来,我国经济发展取得了巨大成就,广大农村面貌发生翻天覆地的变化,温饱问题彻底解决,这是历史性的伟大成就。 ③但是,中国社会经济发展存在很大的城乡差距,农村居民生活水平、发展活力、社会治理等各个方面都要落后于城市,小康说到底还是“人”的小康,七千多万的农村贫苦人口仍然是全面建成小康社会中的最突出短板,可以说农民、农村小康,则中国小康。 ④全面建成小康社会,更重要、更难做到的就是“全面”,“全面”是指发展的平衡性,协调性、可持续性。因此,落实五大发展理念,要特别重视“协调发展”,“共享发展”,协调是持续健康发展的内在要求,共享是中国特色社会主义的本质属性,不断推进全民共享、全面共享,坚持发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享。 (2)①打赢脱贫攻坚战事关全面建成小康社会、事关增进人民福祉、事关巩固党的执政基础、事关国家长治久安。 ②脱贫攻坚首先要解放思想,转变观念,“移民搬迁”对于自然条件较差,基础实施落后地区农村的发展具有重大意义。水电站的建成赤溪村结束了无电的历史,大大改善了生活条件。 ③加强村两委班子领导、巩固党建基础,实施“第一书记”制度,安排省直部门干部向党建薄弱村下派挂职“第一书记”帮扶。 ④政策扶植,第一个出台政策鼓励大学生返乡创业、助力扶贫。实事求是,因地制宜,扶贫开发模式由偏重“输血”向注重“造血”转变,绿水青山也是金山银山,因地制宜培育旅游特色优势产业。 36.(1)参考答案: 第一,长征出发前,由于党内“左”倾教条主义的错误领导,中央革命根据地第五次反“围剿”失败,其他根据地也遭受挫折,中国共产党到了生死存亡的危急关头,中国革命面临着方向和道路的抉择。第二,长征途中,中国共产党通过艰苦卓绝的实践探索,成功把解决生存危机同拯救民族危亡联系在一起,把长征同建立抗日前进阵地联系在一起,实现了国内革命战争向抗日民族战争的转变,为夺取中国人民抗日战争胜利、进而夺取新民主主义革命胜利打下了坚实基础。第三,长征的胜利,不仅保存了革命力量,而且找到了中国革命力量生存发展新的落脚点,找到了中国革命事业胜利前进新的出发点。从长征的终点出发,中国共产党领导中国人民展开了中国革命波澜壮阔的新画卷。长征胜利后,在中国共产党领导下,中国人民取得了抗日战争和解放战争的胜利,开启了中国共产党为实现民族独立、人民解放而斗争的新的伟大进军。 (2)第一,长征永远在路上。中国共产党领导的革命、建设与改革事业都是一场伟大的长征。第二,在革命年代,长征实现了中国共产党和中国革命事业从挫折走向胜利的伟大转折,开启了中国共产党为实现民族独立、人民解放而斗争的新的伟大进军。第三,在革命胜利的基础上,中国共产党带领中国人民经过艰苦摸索和曲折实践,开启了建设中国特色社会主义的长征,终于找到了中国特色社会主义道路,迎来了中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景。第四,在当代中国,中国共产党带领中国人民正走在实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的新长征路上,夺取坚持和发展中国特色社会主义伟大事业新进展,夺取推进党的建设新的伟大工程新成效,夺取具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争新胜利。 37. 参考答案: (1)“工匠精神”的实质是对职业道德的遵守。职业道德是指从事一定职业的人在职业生活中应当遵循的具有职业特征的道德要求和行为准则,涵盖了从业人员与服务对象、职业与职工、职业与职业之间的关系。包括爱岗敬业、诚实守信、办事公道、服务群众、奉献社会。 工匠精神崇尚劳动和贡献社会的人生价值,主张通过积极的劳动创造奉献人生、改变世界,这有助于在公众中引导确立正确的社会价值观。 对于当下的中国而言,工匠精神具有特殊意义,它契合于以改革创新为核心的时代精神,有助于诠释和展现中国精神的力量。工匠精神是平凡的岗位上为社会做贡献,尤其体现了职业道德中的爱岗敬业与奉献社会。 (2)在当代中国,社会发展离不开改革创新,改革创新是社会发展的重要动力。改革创新是进一步解放和发展生产力的必然要求;改革创新是全面深化改革、推动经济社会全面发展的重要条件;改革创新是建设社会主义创新型国家的迫切需要。 工匠精神尊崇爱岗敬业、诚实守信、服务群众、奉献社会的职业道德规范,有助于规范行业和社会主义市场秩序。我们正处在积极应对经济新常态,转变经济发展方式,实施创新驱动发展战略的新时代,需要所有职业的从业者自觉遵守职业道德,弘扬工匠精神,为中国特色社会主义现代化建设,实现“两个一百年”做贡献。所以弘扬“工匠精神”是对一切职业的道德呼唤。 38. 参考答案: (1)二十国集团领导人杭州峰会针对世界经济增长的主要引擎进入换挡期,增长动力不足、需求不振、金融市场反复动 荡、国际贸易和投资持续低迷等多重风险和挑战背景,确立了“构建创新、活力、联动、包容的世界经济”主题具有 很强的现实针对性。 大会提出了应对世界经济面临挑战的诸多主张: 第一,我们应该加强宏观政策协调,合力促进全 球经济增长、维护金融稳定; 第二,我们应该创新发展方式,挖掘增长动能。调整政策思路,做到短期政策和中长期 政策并重,需求侧管理和供给侧改革并重; 第三,我们应该完善全球经济治理,夯实机制保障。不断完善国际货币金 融体系,优化国际金融机构治理结构,完善全球金融安全网,提高世界经济抗风险能力; 第四,我们应该建设开放型 世界经济,继续推动贸易投资自由化便利化。恪守不采取新的保护主义措施的承诺,加强投资政策协调合作,采取切 实行动促进贸易增长; 第五,我们应该落实2030年可持续发展议程,促进包容性发展。上述主张为世界经济开出一剂 标本兼治、综合施策的药方,让世界经济走上强劲、可持续、平衡、包容增长之路。 (2)习主席的比喻反映了中国在外交中坚持和平发展背景下完善全球经济治理的理念主张。中国始终奉行“互利共赢”战略,贯彻落实“命运共同体意识”秉持和平、发展、合作、共赢的理念,中国是大国姿态体现了世界的情怀。 二十国集团集作为世界主要发达国家和主要的发展中国家于一体的全球经济治理的框架平台,把发展置于二十国集团议程的突出位置,共同承诺积极落实2030年可持续发展议程,并制定了行动计划,体现了中国提倡国际关系民主化,以自身发展带动世界发展,着眼世界和平、发展的情怀。[详情]

2017考研政治真题解析(思修部分)
2017考研政治真题解析(思修部分)

  2017考研政治已经结束了,相信同学们做的很不错吧,快来跟小编看看2017考研政治真题中思修主观题考了点啥? 37、(1)“工匠精神”的实质是什么? 答:道德上,工匠精神是社会主义职业道德的要求,对所从事的职业有一种敬畏之心,服务群众、奉献社会,精通自己从事的视野,技艺精湛。 社会层次上,工匠精神反映的亿万普通群众对本职工作的一种担当精神和牺牲精神,爱岗敬业,求实创新。 (2)为什么说弘扬“工匠精神”是“对一切职业道德的呼唤”? 答:职业道德是从事一定职业的人在职业生活中应当遵循的具有职业特征的道德要求和行为准则。爱岗敬业是对工作勤奋努力、恪尽职守的行为表现。工匠精神体现的就是要干一行爱一行,爱一行钻一行,精益求精,尽职尽责。 诚实守信是对从业者的道德要求,工匠精神不仅仅是制造业需要,企业家需要,每一个人都要有这种态度,这不仅是做人的准则,更是扎根立足的基础。 服务群众,各行各业的从业人员都要以服务群众为宗旨,各行各业,都要自觉遵守服务群众的要求。 ④奉献社会,这是社会主义职业道德最高层次要求,体现了社会主义职业道德的最高目标指向,工匠精神更是一种无私奉献的精神,无论是爱岗敬业、诚实守信、办事公道、服务群众都体现了奉献社会的精神。 今年的考研政治真题中思修主观题,主要是从遵守社会道德规范之职业道德部分,以往考题中出现过客观题,今年则从“工匠精神”出发,探寻其充分彰显的社会主义职业道德,同学们除了要了解社会主义职业道德内容外,还得对不同部分加以简单阐述,并和“工匠精神”作合理结合,答题即可。总的说来,今年考研政治的思修题目比较简单,相信同学们也是信心满满![详情]

2017年考研初试政治真题及参考答案
2017年考研初试政治真题及参考答案

  新浪教育讯 2017年考研初试在12月24日正式开考了。新浪教育频道第一时间发布考研初试各科真题及权威答案解析。以下为2017年考研初试政治真题。 【点击查看答案】 一、单项选择题:1~16小题,每小题1分,共16分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,只有一个选项是符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。 1. 某地区进入供暖季后常出现雾霾,而一旦出现大风天气或等到春暖花开后雾霾就会散去减少,从该地区较长时间的数据变化看,经过人们努力治霾,污染物排放总量在持续走低,但在某些时段,环境空气质量污染指数会迅速攀升,甚至“爆表”,这种看似“矛盾”的现象凸显了大气污染防治的一个特点:天帮忙很重要,但人努力才是根本。“人努力”与“天帮忙”之间的关系对我们处理主观能动性和客观规律之间辩证关系的启示是: A.人类有意识的思想活动是掌握客观规律的根本前提 B.尊重食物的客观规律是正确发挥主观能动性的前提 C.认识活动是客观规律性与主观能动性相统一的基础 D.尚未认识的外在自然规律对人的实践活动起着至关重要的作用 2.有人认为,既然人的意识是对客观外部世界的反映,那么人脑里的“鬼”、“神”意识就是对外在世界鬼、神真实存在的反映。这种观念错误在于 A.把意识看成是物质的产物 B.夸大了意识的能动作用 C.认为意识是对存在的直接反映 D.混淆了人类意识自然演化的阶段 3.某企业投资汽车生产。生产一辆汽车所耗费的生产资料价值为15万元,支付给工人的工资为5万元,假定市场的平均利润为10%,那么,在自由竞争条件下,该汽车的生产价格是 A.20.5万元   B.20万元   C.21.5万元   D.22万元 4.从历史发展的角度看,资本主义生产资料所有制是不断演进和变化的,当今资本主义社会居主导地位的资本所有制形式是 A.法人资本所有制   B.私人资本所有制   C.私人股份资本所有制   D.垄断资本私人所有制 5.从中华人民共和国成立到社会主义改造完成,是我国从新民主主义到社会主义的过渡时期。这一时期,个体经济向社会主义集体经济过渡形式是 A.私人资本主义经济     B.国营经济     C.合作社经济    D.国家资本主义经济 6、2016年是“十三五”规划开局之年,也是推进供给侧结构性改革的攻坚之年,推进供给侧结构性改革是适应我国经济发展新常态的重大决策,其根本目的是(). A.提高供给质量满足需要 B.加快政府职能转变 C.深化价格、财税、金融、社保等领域基础性改革 D.推进“去产能、去库存、降成本、补短板” 7.协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,是党十八大以来党中央从实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标,实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的战略高度,统筹国内国际两个大局,把握我国发展新特征确定的治国理论新方略。在“四个全面”战略布局居于引领地位的是() A.全面深化改革 B.全面建成小康社会 C.全面依法治国 D.全面从严治党 8.随着工业化、城镇化的深入推进,大量农民转向非农产业,我国农村土地流转现象日益普遍,农业经营方式发生深刻变化,截至2016年6月全国家庭承包经营耕地面积流转已超过30%,流转土地4.6亿亩。当前为解决拥有土地承包经营权的人不再种地,种地的人又没有相应权利这一突出问题,我国在深化农村改革方面做出重大制度创新是() A.实行农村土地所有权、承包权、经营权分量 B.实行农村集体经营性建设用地入市 C.实行农村家庭联产承包责任制 D.实行农村耕地保护制度 9.帝国主义侵略中国的最终目的是要瓜分中国,灭亡中国。1895年中国在甲午战争中战败后,列强掀起了瓜分中国的狂潮,这集中表现在() A.设立完全由外国人直接控制和统治的租界 B.竞相租借港湾和划分势力范围 C.外国资本主义在中国近代工业中争夺垄断地位 D.从侵占中国边邻国发展到蚕食中国边疆地区 10.第一次世界大战,德国战败。1918年12月,陈独秀在《每周评论》里的发刊词中说大战结果是“公理战胜强权”,并把美国总统威尔逊称作“现在世界第一好人”,然而陈独秀在1919年5月4日出版的《每周评论》上的一片文章中又写到“什么公理,什么永久和平,什么威尔逊总统十四条宣言,都成了疑问不值的空话。”导致陈独秀认识发生变化的直接原因是() A.美国不愿放弃在华种种特权 B.日本对德宣战,出兵山东 C.苏俄宣布废除以前同中国签订的一切不平等条约 D.中国在巴黎和会上的外交失败 11.毛泽东思想是马克思主义中国化的第一大理论成果,是在中国革命和建设的实践中逐步形成和发展起来的,在土地革命战争后期和抗日战争时期,毛泽东思想得到多方面展开而达到成熟,其标志是() A.思想政治工作和文化工作理论的系统提出 B.新民主主义的理论的系统阐明 C.人民民主专政理论的完整论述 D.农村包围城市和武装夺政权卢纶的科学概括 12.1947年6月底,根据中共中央的决策和部署,刘伯承、邓小平率领的晋冀鲁豫野战军主力,实施中央突破,千里跃进大别山;陈毅、粟裕指挥的华东野战军主力为东路,挺进鲁豫皖地区;陈赓、谢富治指挥的晋冀鲁豫野战军一路为西路,挺进豫西。三大主力军相互侧影,机动歼破,迫使国民党处于被动地位。这说明() A.人民解放军在数量上已经超过国民党军队 B.人民解放军线路进攻的序幕由此揭开 C.人民解放军同国民党军队进行战略对决的时机已经成熟 D.人民解放军进入战略相持阶段 13、信念是认知、情感和意志的有机统一体,是人们在一定的认知基础上确立的对某种思想或者事物坚信不疑并身体力行的心理态度和精神状态。信念是人们追求理想目标的强大动力,决定事业的成败,信念有不同的层次和类型,其中() A.高层次的信念决定低层次的信念 B.低层次的信念代表了一个人的基本信仰 C.相同社会环境中生活的人们信念始终一致 D.各种信念没有科学与非科学之分 14社会主义核心价值观为人们确定和实现人生价值提供了基本遵循。人生价值评价主要是看一个人的人生活动是否符合社会的客观规律,其评价的根本尺度是 A.历史标准 B.经济标准 C.政治标准 D.文化标准 15.自2016年5月20日台湾地区新领导人入职以来,两岸制度文化沟通和协商谈判机制中断,其根本原因在于 A.台湾在美国测试新的导弹防御系统 B.美国高规格“礼遇”台湾当局领导人过境 C.台湾当局减少了赴台旅游大陆游客的配额 D.台湾当局未明确承认“九二共识”及其核心意涵 16.二战后,中东经历了长期和频繁的战争与冲突,是世界上最动荡的地区,被称为“火药库”。2016.11.29联合国举行“声援巴基斯坦人民国际日”纪念大会,中国国家主席习近平向大会致贺电,表示中国作为联合国安理会常任理事国,愿同国际社会—起为早日实现中东全面,公正,持久和平做出不断努力,中东问题的核心是 A.伊朗核问题 B.教派冲突问题 C.恐怖主义问题 D.巴基斯坦问题 二、多项选择题:17~33题,每小题2分,共34分。下列每题给出的四个选项中,至少有两个选项是符合题目要求的。请在答题卡上将所选项的字母涂黑。多选或少选均不得分。 17.生物学史,可说是显微镜的发展史。17世界中叶,英国科学家使用诞生不久的显微镜观察软木塞,发现了植物细胞。开启了近现代生物学的内门。此后,显微镜的放大能力和成像质量不断提升,人类对细胞的认知也随之深刻和全面。20世纪中叶,科学家们利用X射线晶体学发现了DNA(双螺旋结构),人类的观察极限从亚细胞结构推向了分子结构。我国科学家们的重要科研成果:剪接体的高分辨别三维结构的背后,也站着一个默默无闻的英雄——冷冻电子显微镜。显在生物科学发现中的作用表明() A.探索未知世界的科学实验是人类最基本的实践活动 B.实践的主体和客体正是依靠中介系统才能够相互作用 C.人类认识水平的提高与实践条件的进步有直接的关系 D.主体、客体和中介三者有机统一构成的实践的基本结构 18.唯物史观在坚持人民群众是历史的创造者这一基本前提下,高度重视个人在历史上的作用。历史人物是一定历史事件的主要倡导者、组织领导者或思想理论、科学文化的重要代表人物。下列关于历史人物作用的正确认识是 A.历史人物对历史发展的作用都是积极的 B.历史人物会因其智慧、性格等因素对社会过程发生影响 C.具有进步意义的历史人物往往能够首先发现或提出历史进程中新的历史任务 D.历史人物无论发挥什么样的历史作用都不能决定和改变历史发展的总进程和总方向 19.马克思指出,所谓资本原始积累只不过是生产者和生产资料分离的历史过程。这个过程所以表现为“原始的”,因为它形成资本及与之相适应的生产方式的前史。资本原始积累的主要途径有() A.用暴力手段剥夺农民土地 B.用剥削手段榨取剩余价值 C.用野蛮手段进行殖民掠夺 D.用资本手段获取市场暴力 20.当今世界正处在新科技革命和产业革命的交汇点,以机器人技术为代表的科技产业发展十分迅速。机器人在生产过程中的广泛使用,使资本有机构成不断提高。然而,就一般意义而言,资本有机构成的提高实际上是 A.由资本的本性决定的 B.不以人的意志为转移的一般趋势 C.社会产生相对过剩人口的一个重要原因 D.一个社会增长财富和消除贫困的根本途径 21.1921年3月,俄工(布)召开十大,决定从战时共产主义政策过度到新经济政策。在实施新经济政策期间,列宁对苏维埃俄国如何建设社会主义进行了深刻的理论思考,提出了许多精辟的论述,其内容包括 A.可以利用资本主义来建设社会主义 B.把建设社会主义作为一个长期探索、不断实践的过程 C.把大力发展生产力、提高劳动生产率放在首要地位 D.允许多种经济成分并存,可以利用商品、货币和市场发展经济 22.在庆祝中国共产党成立95周年大会上,习近平总书记强调指出:“坚持不忘初心、继续前进,要坚持党的基本路线不动摇,不断把中国特色社会主义伟大事业推向前进。”改革开放以来,党和国家领导人一再强调要毫不动摇地坚持党的基本路线,这主要是因为,实践已经证明党的基本路线是 A.党和国家的生命线、人民的幸福线 B.实现科学发展的政治保证 C.兴国、立国、强国的重大法宝 D.思想路线的核心 23.“一带一路”倡议提出三年来,已经有100多个国家和国际组织参与其中,我国同沿线30多个国家签署共建合作协议,与20多个国家开展了国际产能合作,一批有影响力的标志性项目逐步落地。截止2016年7月,我国对“一带一路”相关国家的投资累计已达511亿美元,占同期对外直接投资总额的12%;与沿线国家新签承包工程合同1.25万份,累计合同额2790亿美元。我国推进“一带一路”建设旨在 A.统筹国内国际两个大局 B.打造开放、包容、均衡、普惠的区域经济合作架构 C.促进沿线各国共同繁荣 D.探索国际合作及全球治理新模式 24.2016年7月以来,中央陆续派出环保督查组进驻各地进行现场督查,掀起了一场新的污治问责风暴。环保督查,从环保部门牵头到中央主导,从以查企业为主转变为 “查督并举,以督政为主”,这是我国环境监管模式的重大变革和完善生态文明制度体系的重要举措。建立环保督查工作机制有利于 A.处理好政府与市场的关系 B.强化领导责任和监管责任 C.落实环境保护主体责任 D.完善领导干部目标责任考核制度 25.党的十八届五中全会提出“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”的新发展理念,把创新作为引领发展的第一动力。在这一新发展理念,把创新作为引领发展的第一动力。在这一新发展理念的指导下,2016年5月党中央和国务院颁布了《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》。把创新作为引领发展的第一动力是 A.分析世界发展历程和总结我们改革开放实践得出的结论 B.引领经济发展新常态的根本之策 C.构建和谐社会的内在要求 D.提高核心竞争力的必然选择 26.严肃党内政治生活是我们党的优良传统和政治优势,也是全面从严治党的基础。党的十八届六中全会审议通过了《关于新形势下党内政治生活的若干准则》和《中国共产党党内监督条例》,提出了新形势下加强和规范党内政治生活的新要求,其主要内容是 A.着力增强党内政治生活的政治性、时代性、原则性和战斗性 B.着力提高党的领导水平和执政水平,增强拒腐防变和抵御风险能力 C.着力增强党自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、自我提高能力 D.着力维护党中央权威,保证党的团结统一、保持党的先进性和纯洁性 27.在半殖民地半封建社会的条件下,中国不可能在独立的基础上与外国发生经济往来,资本-帝国主义列强同中国发生经济关系,不是为了推动中国经济的发展,而是为了控制中国的经济。列强控制中国经济的方式有: A.在中国设立出版机构宣传西学 B.控制中国的关税和盐税 C.在中国设立银行 D.控制中国的交通运输业 28.孙中山先生是伟大的民族英雄、伟大的爱国主义者、中国民主革命的伟大先驱,一生以革命为己任,立志救国救民,为中国民族作出了彪炳史册的贡献。孙中山先生的伟大表现在 A.领导了辛亥革命 B.重新解释了三民主义并提出了联俄、联共、扶助农工三大政策 C.发动了以推翻北洋军阀统治为目标的北伐战争 D.坚定维护民主共和制度和国家完整统一 29.1978年12月18日到22日,党的十一届三中全会在北京召开。会议的主要任务是确定把全党工作重点转移到社会主义现代化建设上来。这次全会是新中国成立以来党的历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折。全会结束了粉碎“四人帮”后两年党和国家工作在徘徊中前进的局面,标志着中国共产党 A.重新确立了马克思主义的思想路线、政治路线、组织路线 B.形成了以邓小平为核心的党的中央领导集体 C.开始了在思想、政治、组织等领域的全面拨乱反正 D.解开了社会主义改革开放的序幕 30.我国法律文化有悠久的历史和传承,据《说文解字》阐释,汉语中“法”的古体是“灋”。“灋,刑也,平之如水,从水;鹰,所以触不直者去之,从去。”在古代,“法”主要表现为“刑”或“刑律”,“刑”既有刑戮、罚罪之意,也有规范之意;“鹰”也称“獬豸”,是神话中的独角兽,它公正不阿,善断是非曲直。上述材料表明,在传统文化中人们对法律的理解和诉求是 A.法律体现了君权神授的思想 B.法律具有至高无上的地位 C.法律富含着公平如水、正义神圣的深刻意蕴 D.法律寄托着惩恶扬善、匡扶正义的价值追求 31.公共生活中的个人权利与他人权利发生冲突在所难免,比如学生宿舍里有人看书,有人休息,有人要听音乐……对解决权利冲突要有正确的认识,虽然每个人都有刑事个人权利的自由,但也要尊重他人权利。这是因为 A.尊重他人权利即是一项法律义务,也是一项道德义务 B.尊重他人权利是公民意识的重要内容 C.权利实现的内在动力是人们彼此之间对各自权利的相互尊重 D.不尊重他人权利,就可能丧失自己的权利 32.中国人民解放军战区成立大会于2016年2月1日在北京隆重举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向东部战区、南部战区、西部战区、北部战区、中部战区授予军旗并发布训令。建立五大战区及组建战区联合作战指挥机构是 A.构建我军联合作战体系的历史性发展 B.为实现中国梦强军梦作出的战略决策 C.加强国际军事合作与交流的重大步骤 D.全面实施改革强军战略的标志性举措 33.2016年6月23日,英国举行脱离欧盟全民公投,脱欧阵营以51.9%对留欧阵营48.1%的微弱得票优势胜出,英国成为首个投票脱离欧盟的国家,为欧扎偶一体化京城带来变数。导致英国“脱欧”的因素主要有 A.英国始终反对欧洲一体化 B.英国“疑欧主义”传统 C.欧洲遭遇史上最大难民潮冲击 D.英国不愿接受欧盟某些监管规则束缚 三、分析题:34~38小题,每小题10分,共50分。要求结合所学知识分析材料并回答问题。将答案写在答题纸指定位置上。 34.结合材料回答问题 2016年3月,世界围棋冠军李世石与谷歌围棋人工智能程序AlphaGo(阿尔法围棋)的人机大战吸引了全世界的目光。AlphaGo最终以4:1击败李世石,此次AlphaGo的胜利被业界认为是人工智能发展史上的一个重要的里程碑。 人工智能一般被认为是通过模拟,延伸和扩展人类智能,产生具有类人智能的计算系统。经过半个多世纪的努力,人类在人工智能技术的诸多领城取得了一连串重要突破。1968年,斯坦福大学的计算机科学家设计出了第一个专家系统;1982年,加州理工学院物理学家提出了新的神经网络模型;1997年,I BM“深蓝”电脑战胜国际象棋世界冠军卡斯帕罗夫;2011年,IBM超级计算机“沃森”在美国电视答题节目中战胜两位人类冠军;2013年,机器在人脸识别上超过人类;仅一年后,机器人在物体识別上也获胜……未来人工智能继续超越人类的可能性很高。 在人工智能应用前景充满无限可能的情况下,其潜在风险也引发了广泛讨论。 2016 年2月,在美国加州发生了一起无人驾驶汽车因躲避路上障碍物而撞上公交车的交通事故,这凸显出人工智能设备在应对人类社会各种场景时面临的挑战。人们还担心人工智能技术成熟后的问題,比如将机器人用于战争是否会带来像核武器一样的后果。 有学者表示,人机对弈是人类思考自身作用的契机,人工智能的目的是帮助人类,创造出比李世石更优秀的棋手应该是人类的胜利。也有学者认为,在面对复杂的伦理问题时,人工智能技术可能会陷入不可预知的选择困境。著名物理学家霍金也发出警告:“我不认为人工智能的进步一定会是良性的。” 德国人工智能研究所柏林分所所长汉斯•乌斯克莱特强调说,人工智能的矸究方向不是要取代人类,而是要与人类互补,增强人类的能力。人工智能不会取代人类,因为只有人类才具有创造力和目标,而机器只关注如何解决眼前遇到的问題。要让人工智能避免犯下道德层面的错误,关健在于人类自己。在美国《连线》杂志创始主编凯文•凯利看来,每个发明都不可避免带来新问题,但同时也会带来新的解决方案。解决这些问题的方式不是減少技术的使用,而是通过改进技术来提供解决方案。他认为,即使新的科技发明带来的49%是问题,但它首先带来了51%的好处。这正是人类进步的动力。 从这个意义上讲,“阿尔法围棋”和李世石无论谁胜谁败,人类都是最后的赢家。总之,用好人工智能,关键还在人类自身。 摘编自《人民日报》(2016年4月12日)、《参考消息》(2016年6月30日) (1)    从真理和价值辩证关系的视角看,为什么人们对人工智能技术会产生多种多样的看法和评价?(4分) (2)    如何理解“用好人工智能,关键还在人类自身”?(6分) 35.结合材料回答问题 1984年6月24日,《人民日报》头版刊登的一封反映福建宁德地区福鼎县磻溪镇赤溪村扶贫状况的读者来信,引发社会的关注和中央的重视,当年9月,党中央国务院发出关于帮助贫困地区尽快改变面貌的通知,拉开了新时期扶贫开发的序幕。赤溪村因此被称作“中国扶贫第一村”。时隔32年之后,2016年2月1日,赤溪村作为新时期扶贫开发“宁德模式”的典范亮相“人民日报”头版,再次引发关注。 当年,赤溪14个自然村散落在9平方公里的大山里,山高路险鸟稀疏,要跳出“贫困的陷阱”殊为不易,最初的办法是“输血”,由政府和社会筹措资金送钱运物,但这种救济式扶贫治标不治本,到上世纪80年代末,整个赤溪贫困率仍在90%以上。 针对当地贫困状况,时任宁德地委书记的习近平同志多次强调,弱鸟可望先飞,至贫可能先富……首先要看我们头脑里有无这种意识,“必须探索一条因地制宜发展经济的路子”。他非常富有前瞻性指出: “抓山也能致富,把山管住,坚持10年,15年,20年,我们的山上就是‘银行’了。 在宁德地委强力推动下,赤溪村打响了以转变观念为突破口的“换血”攻坚战——“挪穷窝”,用移民搬迁的方式把分散的14个自然村集中起来,通路、通电,搬迁成功了,生活环境改善了,新问题又来了:挪了穷窝,靠着人均不足1亩的土地,如何拔掉穷根,走一条自我致富之路?赤溪村两委干部再次帮助群众转变观念,因地制宜培育旅游特色优势产业。今天,生态旅游已成为赤溪人致富的主导产业。2015年全村人均纯收入达1.3万多元,其中45%以上来自旅游业。 三十年来,赤溪村干部群众在党的扶贫政策支持下,在社会各方的大力帮扶下,从“输血”帮扶到“换血”搬迁再到“造血”开发,走出了一条适合自身特点的扶贫脱贫之路,把一个远近闻名的贫困村建成了小康村。2016年2月19日,习近平总书记同赤溪村干部群众进行在线交流时指出:“中国扶贫第一村”这个评价是很高的,滴水穿石,久久为功,弱鸟先飞,你们的实践印证了现在的扶贫方针,就是精准扶贫。” 赤溪村矢志不渝推进扶贫开发,脱贫致富的艰辛历程,正是中国特色扶贫开发探索之路的一个缩影。改革开放以来,我们党成功走出一条中国特色扶贫开发道路,使七亿多贫困人口成功脱贫,为全面建成小康社会打下了坚实的基础。当前,我国脱贫攻坚已进入冲刺阶段。习近平总书记指出“全面建成小康社会关键是把经济社会‘短板’尽快补齐”,而“农村贫困人口脱贫是最突出的短板”,脱贫攻坚战的冲锋号已吹响。我们要立下愚公移山志,咬定目标,苦干实干,坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战。 ——摘编自人民网(2016年2月1日、11月9日)、新华网(2016年7月25日)、央视网(2016年8月6日)等 (1)如何理解农村贫困人口脱贫是我国全面建成小康社会“最突出的短板”?(5分) (2)赤溪村脱贫致富之路对当前我国实施精准扶贫,打赢脱贫攻坚战有何启示?(5分) 36.结合材料回答问题: 从1934年10月至1936年10月,红军第一、第二、第四方面军和第二十五军进行了伟大的长征,我们党领导红军,以非凡的智慧和大无畏的英雄气概,战胜千难万险,付出巨大牺牲,胜利完成震撼世界、彪炳史册的长征,宣告了国民党反动派消灭中国共产党和红军的图谋彻底失败,宣告了中国共产党和红军肩负着民族希望胜利实现了北上抗日的战略转移,实现了中国共产党和中国革命事业从挫折走向胜利的伟大转折,开启了中国共产党为实现民族独立、人民解放而斗争的新的伟大进军。 长征途中,英雄的红军,血战湘江,四渡赤水,巧渡金沙江,强渡大渡河,飞夺泸定桥,鏖战独树镇,勇克包座,转战乌蒙山,击退上百万穷凶恶极的追兵阻敌,征服空气稀薄的冰山雪岭,穿越渺无人烟的沼泽草地,纵横十余省,长驱二万五千里。 长征途中,党中央召开的遵义会议,是我们党历史上一个生死攸关的转折点,这次会议确立了毛泽东同志在红军和党中央的领导地位,开始确立了以毛泽东同志为主要代表的马克思主义正确路线在党中央的领导地位,开始形成以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,这是我们党和革命事业转危为安、不断打开新局面最重要的保证。 长征途中,我们党通过艰苦卓绝的实践探索,成功把解决生存危机同拯救民族危亡联系在一起,把长征的大方向同建立抗日前进阵地联系在一起,实现了国内革命战争向抗日民族战争的转变,为夺取中国人民抗日战争胜利、进而夺取新民主主义革命胜利打下了坚实基础。 长征的胜利,不仅保存了革命力量,而且使我们党找到了中国革命力量生存发展新的落脚点,找到了中国革命事业胜利前进新的出发点。从长征的终点出发,我们党领导中国人民展开了中国革命波澜壮阔的新画卷。 历史是不断向前的,要达到理想的彼岸,就要沿着我们确定的道路不断前进,每一代人有每一代人的长征路,每一代人都要走好自己的长征路。今天,我们这一代人的长征,就是要实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦。 实现伟大的理想,没有平坦的大道可走。夺取坚持和发展中国特色社会主义伟大事业新发展,夺取推进党的建设新的伟大工程新成效,夺取具有许多新的历史特点的伟大的斗争新胜利,我们还有许多“雪山”、“草地”需要跨越,还有许多“娄山关”、“腊子口”需要征服,一切贪图安逸、不愿继续艰苦奋斗的想法都是要不得的,一切骄傲自满、不愿继续开拓前进的想法都是要不得的。 长征永远在路上,一个不记得来路的民族,是没有出路的民族,不论我们的事业发展到哪一步,不论我们取得了多大的成就,我们都要大力弘扬伟大长征精神,在新的长征路上继续奋勇前进。 摘自  习近平《在纪念红军长征胜利80周年大会上的讲话》 (1)为什么说长征的胜利既是“中国革命力量生存发展新的落脚点”,也是“中国革命事业胜利前进新的出发点”?(6分) (2)如何理解“长征永远在路上”?(4分) 37.结合材料回答问题: 2015年五一劳动节前夕,央视新闻频道播出了《大国工匠》系列节目,讲述了8个工匠“八双劳动的手”所缔造的“神话”。节目播出之后,很快引起社会热议,在不到十天的时间里,相关话题的微博阅读量就超过了3560万次。人们发现,走入镜头的工匠们,他们文化不同,年龄有别,但拥有一个共同的闪光点——立足于本职工作,敬业奉献,数十年如一日地追求着职业技能的极致化,靠着传承和钻研,凭着专注和坚守,创造了一个又一个“中国制造”的奇迹。在2016年“两会”上,国务院总理李克强在《政府工作报告》中提出要积极培育“工匠精神”。“工匠精神”第一次正式写入政府工作报告。 “工匠精神”是一种职业精神。工匠们对所从事的事业的爱心和忠心,令人高山仰止。中国航天科技集团一院火箭总装厂高级技师高凤林,36年一直从事火箭的“心脏”——发动机焊接工作,以国为重、扎根一线,是发动机焊接第一人,面对很多企业试图高薪聘请不为所动,他说:“每每看到自己生产的发动机把卫星送到太空,就有一种成功后的自豪感,这种自豪感用金钱买不到。”这也代表了大国工匠们的心声。 “工匠精神”是一种工作态度。在工匠们的心目中,制作出来的产品没有最好,只有更好。高凤林在36年的工作中,攻克了200多项技术难关,经他的手焊接了140多发火箭的发动机,焊接的焊缝总长度达到了12万多米,没有出现过一次质量问题。他先后获得过部院科技进步一等奖、国家科技进步二等奖、2014年纽伦堡国际发明展览会金奖等30多种奖励,而这没有一丝不苟的工作态度显然是无法做到的。 随着时代的发展,工匠的工作或许会逐渐被机器所取代,但是“工匠精神”却不可能被代替。我国作为一个拥有“四大发明”的发明古国,具有历史悠久而技术高超的手工业,薪火相传的能共巧匠们留下了数不胜数的传世佳作。我们今天弘扬“工匠精神”,不仅是对传统工匠技艺的留恋,而且是对一切职业的道德呼唤。“工匠精神”,不仅仅是制造业的需要,也不仅仅是企业家的需要,它代表了一个时代的气质,是我们每一个人的事业追求与人生态度。 摘编自《中国青年报》(2015年5月11日)、央视网(2016年4月22日、10月9日)等 (1)“工匠精神”的实质是什么?(5分) (2)为什么说弘扬“工匠精神”是“对一切职业的道德呼唤”?(5分) 38.请结合材料回答问题 2016年,世界将期待的目光聚集在了中国杭州。9月4日至5日,二十国集团(G20)领导人峰会在这里隆重举行,中国国家主席习近平主持会议并致开幕辞。本届峰会的主题是“构造创新、活力、联动、包容的世界经济”。作为今年中国最重要的主场外交,也是近年来中国主办的级别最高、规模最大、影响最深远的国际峰会,除了G20成员,还有8个嘉宾国领导人以及7个国际组织负责人与会。人们希望中国智慧能为长期疲软的世界经济准确把脉,找到病根,开出标本兼治,综合施策的良方。 中国一直是G20积极的参与者、建设者、贡献者,今年肩负起G20峰会主席国的重任,跃变为全方位的协调者和强有力的主导者。本届峰会尚未开幕,习近平主席就和奥巴马总统先后向联合国秘书长潘基文交存了中国和美国关于气候变化的《巴黎协定》批准文书,不仅提前向峰会送上一份“大礼”,也为会议定下了以建设性伙伴关系处理各项议题的基调。 在中国的精心组织和与会各方的共同努力下,杭州峰会取得了丰硕的成果:发表了《二十国集团领导人杭州峰会公报》,就推动世界经济增长达成许多重要共识;聚焦创新、结构性改革、新工业革命、数字经济等新方式,制定并通过了《二十国集团创新增长蓝图》、《二十国集团深化结构性改革议程》、《2016年二十国集团创新行动计划》、《二十国集团新工业革命行动计划》、《二十国集团落实2030年可持续发展议程行动计划》等28份成果文件,明确了世界经济的前进方向和具体行动计划,以期为世界经济开辟新道路、拓展新疆界;第一次把发展问题置于全球宏观政策框架突出位置,第一次就落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程制度行动计划,第一次集体支持非洲和最不发达国家工业化,在二十国集团历史上具有重要开创性意义;强调二十国集团成员虽然国情不同、发展阶段不同、面临的现实挑战不同,但推动经济增长的愿望相同,应对危机挑战的利益相同,各方应该“彼此包容、守望相助”,“坚定前行、共抵彼岸”。习近平主席特地用“桥”来比喻二十国集团,称其为“友谊之桥”、“合作之桥”、和“未来之桥”。 中国在本次峰会上发挥的巨大作用,得到与会国家和国际组织领导人的高度认可。联合国秘书长潘基文高度赞赏杭州峰会,称中国作为G20轮值主席国,作出了杰出贡献;尤其是推动峰会在“说易行难”的可持续发展议题上制定行动计划,更是历史性的贡献,向世界展示出卓越领导力。 摘编自《人民日报》(2016年9月4日、9月5日、9月6日) ⑴结合当前国际环境,分析二十国集团领导人杭州峰会主题的现实意义。(6分) ⑵习近平主席用“桥”比喻二十国集团,体现出中国怎样的外交理念与世界情怀?(4分)[详情]

2017年考研初试政治真题(图片版)
2017年考研初试政治真题(图片版)

  新浪教育讯 2017年考研初试在12月24日正式开考了。新浪教育频道第一时间发布考研初试各科真题及权威答案解析。以下为2017年考研初试政治真题。目前为不完整版,小编将持续更新。 【点击查看文字版】 [详情]

2017考研政治真题整体难度分析:稳中求变
2017考研政治真题整体难度分析:稳中求变

  考研政治今年的试卷特点概括起来是“稳中求变”,基本保持着中规中矩的出题形式,既突出各个学科的特点,也体现时代的特征——与时政结合的紧密,这也是这几年来的总趋势。 选择题在突出各科特点的情况下,材料更加贴近生活贴近时代,即使如马原这类题目,也更多的去关注时代话题,像第一道题,考察的是唯物论客观规律与主观能动性,引用的材料是关于治霾的内容,可见其时代气息愈发浓郁。虽然试题中依然会有记忆类的题目,比如第5题中特考察的关于个体经济到集体经济的过渡形式,但是完全靠死记硬背的时代已经过去,更多的是考察大家的理解和运用,可以说是考察的是在理解基础上的记忆,在记忆基础上的运用。整体看选择题今年难度不大,并没有超纲,也没有超常规,但是题目做对需要学生细心审题,仔细辨析,有一定的综合运用所学知识的能力。 分析题出题并没有刻意回避热点,马原考的是人工智能、中特是精准脱贫、史纲是长征、思修是大国工匠、当代是G20,这些都是本年度新闻焦点,问题的设置又呼应了考点,涉及到认识论真理价值,民生、改革和全面建成小康社会,职业道德,经济全球化背景下中国合作共赢发展思路,可以说是源于课本高于课本的体现,加强了对学生综合分析能力的考察。 由此可见,考研政治这个学科不能仅仅依靠考前突击式的背诵,更多的应该依靠平时对热点的关注,和对考点的深入理解,对于2018年的考研学子来说,要针对考研的出题趋势规划好备考方案,关注新闻联播,多听老师的讲解,学习老师的分析问题的思维能力,跟住老师的复习节奏,这样才能在2018考研中胜出。[详情]

这三个因素让2017考研竞争飙升
这三个因素让2017考研竞争飙升

  今日,数百万考生走入了2017全国硕士研究生入学考试的考场,全力为各自的考研梦想做最后的冲刺。从报名情况来看,今年除了研究生入学考试人数猛增,或创12年新高之外,在其他报考数据上,也有一些值得深思的变化。下面新东方在线全国研究生入学考试研究中心就来为大家解读一下这些变化以及它会带给我们怎样的影响。 一、考研报名人数激增,考研难度加大 虽然还没有官方数据,但根据各省公布的数据来看,在2016考研人数“逆势”上涨的基础上,2017考研报考人数将再次实现了新增长。今年考研最大的变化是“在职研究生”考试首次纳入统考中,这是今年考研报名人数大幅上涨的一个重要原因。但根据数据显示,考研考生中,应届生的比例也并不低,这在一定程度上说明了考研仍是“刚需”,从另一方面也反应了当下大学生对就业状况的担忧。考研基数人群增大,在一定程度上增加了考研的难度。 二、专硕报考首超学硕,专业扎堆报考难度增大 从2010年开始,各高校开始减少招生学术型硕士,增加全日制专业型硕士。最近几年,随着专硕培养规模壮大及认可度提升,加之其在学习时间、培养方向上的优势,越来越成为考研报考的热门方向。 根据北京教育考试院公布的数据,在全国报考北京招生单位的考生中,瞄准专硕的考生比例逐年提升,2015年为43%,2016年为46.3%,2017则首次超过50%,达到52.2%。,以上数据都表明,专硕招生规模扩大、学硕招生规模缩小,是一个大趋势。专硕与学硕相比,学制短、就业预期相当,对不少无意于学术研究又想继续深造的同学们来说,应该是一个性价比较高的选择。所以不少学生在专业选择上,呈现了扎堆的态势,报考专业两极分化严重,经管金融类、工科技术类专业热度未减,历史、文学等文科类专业热度较低。学术型硕士中最热门专业有:信息与通信工程、材料科学与工程、计算机专业、金融学等,专业型硕士最热门专业包括:会计硕士、金融硕士、工商管理硕士等。这在一定程度上加剧了部分专业的报考难度。 三、挤破头进名校,个别院校录取难度激增 从高校来看,由于多数考生都视考研为第二次高考,希望可以借考研改变自己的“出身”和命运,所以每年考生报考的热门院校都主要集中在985高校、211高校等名校。今年,北京教育考试院的数据显示,报考北京大学、清华大学等10所高校的考生均超过万人,说明“名校梦”还是不少考生考研的原因。但名校梦的背后,就是个别院校录取难度激增,让不少有实力的同学错失了录取机会。在这里,新东方在线国内考试部项目总监甘源老师建议各位考生,在确立报考目标时,要选择适合自己水平和能力的院校,不要盲目跟风报考,降低自己的录取几率。[详情]

博士毕业后他们找了怎样的工作?
博士毕业后他们找了怎样的工作?

  编者按:12月24日,一年一度的考研初试开始了。在顺利考取研究生进行深造后,不少学子还会选择继续读博。博士毕业,就业前景如何?这篇调查或许会给你答案,考研党们也不妨参考一下。 除个别高校外,我国博士毕业生的总体就业率普遍很高,艺术类和师范类高校灵活就业率普遍高于工科类高校; 在就业去向上呈现东部研究型大学升学和出国“双高”态势; 在就业单位上呈现向高校、科研院所和企业集聚态势; 在就业地域上具有明显的“属地就业”和东部就业特征等“溢出”效应; 在就业行业选择上逐渐呈现多元化趋势等综合特征。 本文以最新公布的2014届75所教育部直属高校毕业生就业质量年度报告为分析样本,对博士生就业状况和特点进行定量分析和总体研判,以期为未来我国博士生教育改革提供决策参考。 一、博士毕业生就业去向分布 总体而言,博士生就业去向具有如下两个特征: (1)随着学术劳动力市场的日渐饱和,很多高校和科研单位均要求博士毕业生具有博士后工作经历,因此有相当比例的博士毕业生在国内或出国从事博士后工作。 2014年,我国当年博士后进站人员有14964人(其中国际博士后497人),这些新进站博士后人员相当一部分是当年的应届博士毕业生,其中部分东部高水平研究型大学博士毕业生从事博士后工作的比例较高。 与此同时,也有相当一部分博士毕业生选择出国从事博士后研究,比例最高的6所大学分别为北京大学(12.85%)、清华大学(9.80%)、复旦大学(6.49%)、山东大学(6.44%)、东华大学(5.76%)和浙江大学(5.26%)。 (2)艺术类、师范类高校灵活就业率普遍高于工科类高校。 二、博士毕业生签约单位性质分布 (1)财经、政法类高校博士毕业生进入党政机关的比例显著高于工科类院校。例如,中国政法大学(26.35%)、西南财经大学(13.22%)和中南财经政法大学(12.27%)的这一比例均显著高于其他工科类院校。 综合类高校进入党政机关的比例呈现出“两个极端”趋势—— 一部分综合类高校博士毕业生进入党政机关的比例相对较高,如中国人民大学(15.04%)、清华大学(10%)和厦门大学(9.50%)等高校;而另一部分综合类高校博士毕业生进入党政机关的比例却极低,位列分析样本的最末端,如山东大学(1.39%)、浙江大学(1.28%)、复旦大学(1.09%)和中山大学(0.79%)等高校。 (2)高校是吸纳博士生就业的一个主要渠道,平均一半以上的博士毕业生进入高校就业,但在不同类型的高校之间呈现出显著性差异,表现为师范类及部分综合类高校博士毕业生进入高校比例较高,而部分工科类高校这一比例相对较低。 (3)大学中若设有医学院,则这些高校博士毕业生到医疗卫生单位就业的比例较高。例如,中山大学(47.69%)、上海交通大学(40.86%)、复旦大学(39.75%)、浙江大学(20.19%)、山东大学(19.65%)等高校这一比例均较高。这一方面反映了医学类博士招生规模比较大,另一方面也反映了医学类博士毕业生从事的工作与其专业吻合度非常高。 (4)企业是吸纳博士生就业的另一主要渠道。平均而言,约有近两成(18.34%)的博士毕业生进入各类企业工作,但博士生选择进入国有企业就业的比例显著高于其他类企业。 财经类、工科类高校博士毕业生到企业就业的比例相对较高,而师范类高校这一比例则较低。例如,上海财经大学(34.38%)、中央财经大学(33.83%)这一比例均超过30%;天津大学(32.60%)、浙江大学(31.19%)、清华大学(29.20%)、上海交通大学(28.34%)等高校这一比例也在30%左右;而北京师范大学(5.96%)和陕西师范大学(3.70%)这一比例则较低。 三、博士毕业生就业地域分布 (1)博士生就业地域分布呈现明显的“属地就业”特征。例如,上海交通大学(68.12%)、东华大学(57.50%)和上海财经大学(45.29%)等高校博士毕业生选择在上海就业的平均比例也超过50%。西部高校博士毕业生绝大部分选择在西部地区就业。 (2)但同时其就业也呈现比较明显的“溢出”效应。北上广高校当中,博士毕业生到中西部地区就业比例最高的依次是北京师范大学(30.71%)、北京科技大学(28.77%)、中国政法大学(22.64%)、中国人民大学(14.60%)、上海交通大学(13.05%),等等。 部分东部高校博士毕业生到西部地区就业的比例甚至超过到中部地区就业的比例。例如,北京大学博士毕业生到西部地区就业的比例(13.28%)明显超过到中部地区的(7.50%);北京师范大学、上海交通大学也呈现出类似的就业区域分布特征。 四、博士毕业生就业行业分布 (1)教育、科研行业是吸纳博士毕业生就业的主体。这六所高校博士毕业生进入教育、科研行业就业的比例分别为:北京大学(66.25%)、清华大学(60.90%)、上海交通大学(34.53)、南京大学(70.50%)、西安交通大学(60.27%)、复旦大学(27.44%)。 (2)设立医学院的高校中,博士毕业生去医疗、卫生及生物医药行业的比例相对较高。 (3)综合类高校博士毕业生在政府机构、公共部门及社会组织等行业就业的比例较高,而工科类院校这一比例相对较低。 (4)随着博士生教育规模的不断扩展,博士生的职业选择越来越呈现出多元化的趋势,选择进入非学术性行业的比例也有所增加,但所占比例较小。 面对博士生在就业方面呈现出的这些新特征,未来我国博士生教育改革的重点应立足于提升培养质量和发展质量,相关工作部门应帮助博士生做好就业准备,培养单位应提供具有广度和深度的博士生教育,以努力促进博士生就业质量和就业满意度的不断提升。 作者:高耀(北京大学教育学院博士后;沈文钦,北京大学教育学院副教授)  (本文有删减,原标题:博士毕业后,他们找了怎样的工作?)(责编:王小贝)[详情]

女研究生结婚率明显下降 不愿下嫁低学历男性
女研究生结婚率明显下降 不愿下嫁低学历男性

  12月24日,2017年度考研初试正式开考。考研群体中男少女多已是普遍存在的现象。随着越来越多女生选择考研深造,她们的婚恋情况也得到了关注。 据参考消息网报道,中国社科院发布的一份报告指出,2000~2005年,婚姻匹配的基本模式是丈夫的受教育水平高于或等于妻子。在接受了高等教育的女性中,这个偏好仍然存在,且没有发生改变的迹象。如果匹配模式不变,则接受了研究生教育的女性,更难找到相应配偶。 此前,由中国社科院人口所主编、社会科学文献出版社出版的《人口与劳动绿皮书:中国人口与劳动问题报告No.17》在北京发布。 绿皮书在最后一个章节中聚焦了《特别值得关注的“剩女”群体:研究生》,并指出,教育结构变化导致城镇婚姻市场失衡,更大程度上影响了受教育水平最高的女研究生群体。 绿皮书统计结果显示,2000~2010年,男女研究生的结婚率都在显著下降。2010年,女研究生的结婚率下降到50%以下。在25~34岁这个适婚阶段下降尤其明显。 绿皮书分析称,高校扩招缩小了接受高等教育群体的性别差异。这个影响尤其体现在研究生阶段。在20~29岁年龄组,2010年,女性已经超过了男性。换言之,新入学的研究生,以女性为主。 如果男性偏好受教育水平相当或略低的配偶,在35岁以上的研究生中,因男性比例更高,女性容易找到相匹配的配偶;在34岁以下的年轻群体中,性别比变得对女性不利,如果匹配模式不变,则接受了研究生教育的女性,更难找到相应配偶:受教育水平提高,使她们同时面临年龄增大和候选配偶减少双重风险。 至于婚姻市场上不同受教育群体是怎样匹配的,绿皮书称,按照婚姻阶层假说,在正常情况下,男女都会偏好同一个阶层的异性。但是,如果男性出现了减少,则男性会娶到更多高阶层的女性。第一次世界大战导致法国的青年男子减少,高阶层的女性只好“下嫁”低阶层的男性。 绿皮书统计显示,2000~2005年,婚姻匹配的基本模式是丈夫的受教育水平高于或等于妻子。在接受了高等教育的女性中,这个偏好仍然存在,而且没有发生改变的迹象。具体为:2000年,受教育程度为大专的女性,其丈夫受教育程度相等或更高的比例为69.2%,2005年为73.6%;受教育程度为本科的女性,其丈夫受教育程度相等或更高的比例在这两个年份分别为64.4%和65%;女研究生能嫁的丈夫最高受教育分类也是研究生,两个年份的比例分别为48.1%和48.6%。 可见,接受了高等教育的女性,对丈夫的受教育程度要求没有改变:如果找不到受教育程度相当或更高的男性,她们可能会选择单身。反过来,男性则愿意找一个教育水平低于自己的妻子,男性受教育程度越高,妻子受教育程度低于自己的比例越大。 绿皮书指出,高校扩招改变了高等教育群体的性别比,但女性寻找配偶的模式并未变化,使她们匹配失败的风险增大。 绿皮书进一步认为,面对女大学毕业生的增加,男性在婚姻市场上的匹配模式开始发生变化:受教育程度为大专的男性,其妻子受教育程度相等或更高的比例,由38.4%上升到49%;受教育程度为本科的男性,其妻子受教育水平相等或更高的比例由30.1%上升到38.4%;男研究生的妻子为研究生的比例,也从2000年的17.3%上升到22.6%。 绿皮书指出,婚姻市场上,5年时间在经验上不算长,但可以谨慎判断:男性已开始根据变化了的环境,调整自己的配偶选择,而女性对配偶的选择还没有表现出明显的变化。这可能是“剩女”现象比“剩男”更严重的原因。 (原标题:中国女研究生结婚率被指下降明显 对方学历低看不上 责编:王小贝)[详情]

普通本科出身的名校研究生:我们为何沦为学渣?
普通本科出身的名校研究生:我们为何沦为学渣?

  12月24日,2017年度考研初试开考了。考研是许多普通高校学子进入名校继续深造的重要途径,能够顺利考入名校读研的学子,需要付出超乎常人的努力与勤奋。 然而,这些骄傲的学霸到了名校却被动变成了“无知宝宝”:不懂的专业名词、没见过的专业设备、不熟悉的名师……种种原因也让他们开始思考,自己为何与同学有了差距。他们学习踏实,有着传奇般考研逆袭的经历,却时常躲不过“出身”带来的尴尬,竞争不过那些本科来自名校的同学。 曾经的学霸,如今的“井底之蛙” 李梓是清华大学的研三学生。平常和同学在一起,他总是不太愿意提起自己的本科学校。说起与本科学校4年的“感情纠葛”,李梓也不清楚,到底是谁亏欠了谁。 和很多普通本科出身的学霸相似,李梓也曾有过高考失利、痛下决心、考研逆袭的一系列经历。然而,上了清华他才知道,原来高考时与名校的“擦身而过”,带来的却是与同学在视野和学术上的双重差距。 “我和本科出身名校的同学相比,就像井底之蛙。”造成这样差距的原因,在李梓看来主要是因为本科时科研接触面太窄。 李梓本科在东北地区的一所普通高校就读。作为生物学相关专业的学生,他几乎没有机会进入学校的实验室。“大一大二的时候,老师们会说,你们还小,很多知识都不懂,等到大三再去实验室吧。” 当他要求参与做实验时,仍被老师拒绝。理由很简单:我们不鼓励本科生进实验室,又不确定你以后会不会留在学校读研,你要是考研走了我们不是白培养你了吗?学校的实验室主要是给留在本校的研究生们用的! “其实哪怕是刷刷试管,我都愿意。”李梓说。 到了大三,李梓终于可以做实验了。然而一个班几十人分成几组,每组大概只有一两个人能真正动手做实验。一个班里进过实验室的人寥寥无几。 后来,李梓已经没有时间进实验室了。和很多准备考研的同学一样,他需要选定专业、开始复习。到了读研究生时,他才发现很多同学在大一大二时就已经熟悉了实验室的操作流程,自己还不如一个本科生。 “我没有机会尽早培养起专业兴趣,没有机会锻炼科研思维,我的动手能力也很差。虽说是本科母校带我走进了这一领域,但如今这些差距也不得不说是她造成的。”李梓无奈地说道。 而对于在中国科学院某所就读研究生的梁浩然来说,本科时眼界的限制还在于自己接触不到最新的研究成果。 本科毕业于华北一所非985高校的梁浩然记得:“本科时我们用的都是学校自己出的很老的教材,很多最新的研究成果都没有。”由于师资水平有限,很多任课老师也跟不上最新学术进展。 有时,学校也会请一些国内知名的学术“大腕”过来做讲座。梁浩然发现:自己在班上成绩虽然年年拔尖,却听不懂“大腕”们在讲什么,有些专业名词他甚至连听都没听说过。 “我的本科学校对于交叉学科的教授和引导也不够,比如生物物理、化学生物等。很多学科在本科时都没有相关课程,让我们失去了很多了解不同专业方向的机会。”这导致的最直接的问题是:当梁浩然和他的同学在选择读研方向时,根本不知道要报哪个专业,只能凭感觉。 本科学校课程低要求,“是福是祸” 在接受中国青年报·中青在线记者采访时,不少从普通高校考入名校的研究生反映:本科学校的课程要求低,使他们在本科时没有严格要求自己并提升专业能力,最终导致与名校出身的同学越差越远。 熊康本科就读于河北某普通高校,学习成绩优异、满怀专业理想的她为了“能受到名师的教诲,和优秀的同学一起学习”,考取了中国人民大学的研究生。 与本科学校相比,人大的平台为熊康提供了更多更优质的资源。一开始,熊康并不在意自己本科学校和人大的差距。她甚至觉得,差距反而证明了自己的努力刻苦。但她逐渐意识到,“有些东西是硬伤,跨不过去的”。 在研究方法课上,熊康被要求每周阅读几十甚至上百页的英文文献,并在课堂上发言。看着其他同学在课堂上侃侃而谈,连文献都没读完的她备受打击。课后,熊康忍不住问坐在身边的同学,却被告知他们在人大读本科时就已经习惯了这种阅读强度。 事实上,熊康的本科学校设置的专业课程通过率很高,别说阅读文献,甚至连布置作业都很少有过。期末考试有的是开卷,有的是交课程论文,即使是闭卷考试,突击复习几天也能拿到高分。现在的她开始觉得,自己越来越难融入这群“人大的亲生孩子”了。 毕业于某农林类211高校的方浩成是清华大学的直博生,在以优异成绩考入清华以后,他也遇到了和熊康一样的问题。 “我在本科时有一门课最拿手,结果到了研究生时这门课几乎要垫底。”方浩成认为,这一课程应是该专业十分重要的基础课,但在大学时只是作为选修课,而且授课内容十分简单,“不用考试随便就过了”。 方浩成回忆道,本科时开卷考试很多,那时的他很高兴,觉得考试太容易了。 “当时有一位老师的课程要求严,结果学院就找到这位老师,告诉他这门课挂科率太高了,应该要求低一点,别让大家都挂了。”方浩成认为,就在这样的环境下,老师对学生的要求变得越来越低,而学生就更难自我要求了。 低要求的课程设置和培养模式让能力较差的学生可以轻松度过大学4年,而对于把名校设为目标的学生来讲,这样的低要求不仅导致他们基础更差,也让他们失去了“开脑洞”的能力与机会。 “我们对于有些课程的重视度不够,基础也很差,上了研究生才知道原来有些课的内容很重要。和清华本科的同学相比,我缺乏创造力和想象力,他们基础好,‘脑洞’都很大。”方浩成说道。 而在某知名研究所就读心理学研究生的陈集看来,自己本科学校的有些老师都不了解自己的课程,有时“自己就把自己讲晕了”。 “由于师资缺乏,按照培养计划,有些老师不得不教一些非自己研究方向的课程。曾经遇到一位老师,讲着讲着就让我们自己看书,他说他也不太明白了。”陈集表示,或许老师们自己也很无奈,这都是普通高校的“心酸”。 以考研为办学目的是对学生不负责 除了普通高校与名校的差距造成的知识短板之外,这些本科时期在普通高校就读的名校研究生,还经历了很多名校本科毕业的同学想象不到的迷茫和焦虑。 现在协和医学院就读研三、毕业于某理工类普通院校的吴雪就对自己的未来已迷茫了很久。 “我所在的本科学校一直在宣传自己的考研升学率,考研时我不知道自己对什么感兴趣,只知道学习好就得考研,却不知道为什么考研。如今我才发现,我选了一个自己不是很喜欢的专业方向。”吴雪说道。 “唯升学率”不仅让吴雪找不到适合自己的研究方向,还让她感到自己除了那点考研知识,其他什么都不会。 4年的本科生活不仅没让吴雪找到适合自己的研究方向,还让她感到自己除了那点考研知识,其他什么都不会。“我的专业英语水平达不到阅读原版文献的程度,社会学、经济学基本知识的缺乏更让我在专业研究的时候受到局限。连很多课程需要的公开演讲对我来说都很困难。” 此外,临近毕业的她在找工作时还遭遇不少“闭门羹”:很多招聘单位都对求职者的本科学校有所限制。一看到她非985的本科背景,很多单位在“简历关”就pass她了。 “为什么现在招聘时用人单位会对本科学校有偏见和限制,就是因为有些人在大学时没有接受到全面完整的本科教育。” 21世纪教育研究院副院长熊丙奇在接受中国青年报·中青在线记者采访时表示。 熊丙奇认为,现在一些普通本科院校以“考研率”作为自己的办学目标,学校为了考研的同学改变课程安排,沦为“考研基地”,这已是一个非常严重的问题。 “一些学校对学生进行考核时,非考研相关的科目就让老师放水,让大家都过。他们也不要求、甚至不鼓励学生参与实践、实验、实习,学生还是高中式的学习模式。这样培养出来的学生就算考研分数高,各方面能力还是有所欠缺,学术能力有些偏弱,毕业也很难找到合适的工作。”熊丙奇说。 在目前的“普通高校本科生——名校研究生”的成长模式下,学生可以摆脱普通本科高校的身份,成为一所名校的研究生,但是“不能只为考一个文凭。在本科阶段就要考虑培养自己的学术能力,以便考上研究生后得到更好的发展。只为考研而学习,获取到的知识和能力都非常有限”。 “出身”好坏并不代表能力高低。北京某知名高校一位不愿意透露姓名的教授认为,自己所认识的一些普通本科高校考入名校的研究生,在本专业甚至学校中都取得了十分优异的成绩。然而,他们的确需要付出比名校本科毕业生更大的努力,才能追赶甚至超过他们。 因此,对于普通学校的学生来讲,熊丙奇认为可以选择考研,但要有长远的规划。而一些普通本科高校要反思自己的人才培养模式。 “本科院校不应以考研率为办学目标。”熊丙奇说,“以考研为办学目的,是一种功利的办学方式,这是对学生的不负责任。” 对于这些普通本科院校,熊丙奇建议,其发展的出路就是“搞好师资建设和课程建设,提高人才培养质量,在同等层次上做到一流”。 (应采访对象要求,文中采访学生均为化名)[详情]

硕士中女学霸占大半 教授连年招不到男硕士
硕士中女学霸占大半 教授连年招不到男硕士

  一年一度的考研初试在2016年11月24日拉开了序幕。多地考研报名人数都呈增长趋势,其中男女生比例虽未披露,但根据《2015年全国研究生招生数据调查报告》(以下简称“报告”),在我国研究生招生中,女生占了半数以上,女学霸们在考研深造的路上一路奋进,那么男生去哪儿了? 硕士研究生淘汰率不到5% 根据报告,我国硕士研究生整体淘汰率不到5%,而在许多教育发达国家,这个数字可能高达30%—50%,比如美国的博士生淘汰率为38%。 数据表明,2004年全国研究生招生计划为33万人,到2014年扩大到了80万人,其中全日制研究生63万人。“近些年研究生大幅扩招后,生源质量也在下降。”业内人士介绍,这样毕业生整体质量下降在所难免。 今后研究生的日子恐怕不再那么好过了。根据教育部近日发布的《关于改进和加强研究生课程建设的意见》,要探索建立课程学习综合考核制度。根据实际情况,结合研究生中期考核或设立单独考核环节,对研究生经过课程学习后知识结构、能力素质等是否达到规定要求进行综合考核。 “女学霸”比例不断上升 数据表明,2010年,全国女硕士数量首次超过男生,在当年的硕士研究生中,女生占50.36%,比男生多了近万人;而到了2012年,全国143万余硕士研究生中,女生已比男生多4万人。除此,新东方在线[微博]考研的后台数据显示,使用新东方在线考研辅导的女学员占到了55.63%,足足比男学员多出了11.26个百分点。 一教授两年招不到男研究生 昨天,记者从扬州大学研究生院了解到,从最近几年的招生情况来看,女生的确比男生多。以2014届毕业生来说,女生的比例达56%,比男生多200人左右。在扬州大学报考点2015年硕士研究生网上报名情况分析,记者看到考生中男生占47.4%,女生占52.6%。 随后记者从各学院研究生办公室了解到,大部分学院的研究生女生也多于男生,如园植学院去年在校研究生男女生人数比为36:59;数学科学学院的研究生比例为男生43%,女生57%;环境科学与工程学院男女生人数比为55:58。而在一些文科类的院系,女生比例则更高,以外国语学院为例,男女研究生的比例为1:4。 一位理科类教授告诉记者,2000年初,男女研究生数基本对半开,男生还略多于女生。但最近三四年,他明显感到女研究生增多,最近2年他都没有招到男研究生。“现在面试时,如果男女生成绩一样,在印象分上,男生肯定要占优势。”这位教授介绍。 男生都去哪儿了呢?采访中,研二学生小张告诉记者,当年班上有一半人考研,几乎所有女生都参与了考研复习,而男生只有几人。“当时,我宿舍的朋友还劝我,现在工作那么难找,不如快点到社会上磨炼,多点经验和阅历。还有人说考完研后,还得找工作买房子,读研3年就少挣3年钱,不划算。”小张坦言,当时朋友的话,也让他犹豫了好一阵,最后还是在父母的要求下继续考研。 扬大农学院副教授周桂生分析,这种现象可能也和现在的教育体制相关,因为研究生考试中的英语、政治这两门科目,考查的都是学生的记忆性思维,在这一方面,女生更占优势,而男生则在逻辑性推理中占优势。另外,在大学中,男生受到的外界诱惑更多,其中网络是主要诱惑。“很多男生到了大学,就开始玩游戏,最后沉迷,导致他们失去考研的斗志。” (原标题:硕士中女学霸占大半 教授连年招不到男硕士)(责编:王小贝)[详情]

四川81871人今日考研 报名火爆一年涨幅30%
四川81871人今日考研 报名火爆一年涨幅30%

  四川在线消息(记者 江芸涵) 2017年全国硕士研究生招生统考将于24~26日进行。记者12月23日从省教育考试院获悉,全省参考总人数81871名,共设报考点22个,考场2730个,监考员和考务工作人员逾8200余人。 非全日制研究生纳入全国统考 导致报名火爆 据悉,2016年我省研招考试参考总人数是63523名,2015年是59573名,由此看来,考研人数继续增长。业内人士分析认为,今年研招报名火爆跟非全日制研究生也纳入全国统考有关。从2016年12月1日开始,全国研究生正式按全日制和非全日制形式区分。以前,报考非全日制研究生者,都是参加10月举行的全国联考,我省往年有1万多人参考。而从今年起,10月联考取消,这意味着,非全日制考生将和全日制考生一起,参加本周末举行的2017年全国硕士研究生统一入学考试。 提醒考生注意:切勿在考试中作弊 省教育考试院特别提醒广大考生注意:切勿在考试中作弊。刑法修正案(九)从2015年11月1日起实施,对组织考试作弊、非法出售或提供试题答案,请人代考或代替他人考试等违法行为,除了按教育部33号令处理外,还将给予法律的制裁。《中国共产党纪律处分条例》规定,对在考试录取中有泄露试题、考场作弊、涂改试卷、违规录取等行为的中共党员,还将给予党纪处分直至开除党籍。无论是考生还是监考教师、考务工作人员,在考试中的作弊行为,都将按上述法律法规进行处理。 按照安排,我省今年硕士研究生招生考试的评卷工作将从12月28日开始,2017年2月16日由招生单位通知考生成绩,对成绩有异议的考生请于17日联系招生单位申请登记查分,复试工作将在4月进行,录取工作预计在5月底完成。 (原标题:四川81871人今日考研 报名火爆一年涨幅30%,责编:王小贝)[详情]

2017考研初试日历

2016年12月24日(星期六)
8:30-11:30
思想政治理论、管理类联考综合能力
14:00-17:00
外国语
2016年12月25日(星期日)

8:30-11:30

业务课一
14:00-17:00
业务课二
2016年12月26日(星期一)

8:30开始

超过3小时的考试科目在12月26日进行。截止时间由招生单位确定,不超过14:30。

历年考研报录比

年份
报名数(万)
增长率
录取数(万)
报录比例
2017
201
13.5%
暂无
暂无
2016
177
7.9%
51.7
3.4:1
2015
164.9
-4.1%
63
2.6:1
2014
172
-2.2%
57
3.0:1
2013
176
6.3%
53.9
3.3:1
2012
165.6
9.6%
51.7
3.2:1
2011
151.1
7.9%
49.5
3.0:1
2010
140.6
12.8%
47.4
2.8:1
2009
124.6
3.8%
44.9
2.9:1
2008
120
-6.8%
38.6
3.0:1
2007
128.2
0.8%
36.1
3.5:1
2006
127.12
8.4%
34.2
3.2:1
2005
117.2
24.0%
31
3.6:1
2004
94.5
18.5%
27.3
2.9:1
2003
79.7
27.7%
22
2.9:1
2002
62.4
35.7%
16.4
3.2:1

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